When solving the problem with the health-friendly nutrition, significant is the role of the natural plant raw materials based drinks, among which significant place is occupied by the juices and nectars.
These days, given the low resistance of the human body to the negative impact of the environment, one of the main tasks of the food industry is the production of food products with healing properties.
In order to increase the nutritional value of the juice-containing products, wild raw materials having prophylactic and functional performance could be introduced to the manufacturing technologies.
The most promising sources of antioxidants are considered plant sites. The fruits and berries are important providers of biologically active substances in the human organism. Its chemical composition is characterized by great diversity. It determines the color, taste, smell,the nutritional value, the functional properties and storage of the products [1, р.424].
Micronutrients play a key role in the formation and functioning of ferment systems, synthesis of hormones and other biologically active substances in the body. Especially important are micronutrients backing antioxidant protection [1, р.424].
The phenolic compounds are characterized by great diversity in the chemical structure and are present in all plant tissues, accounting for 2-10% of their mass [2, р.13-23].
The therapeutic potential of the wild bushes is in their antioxidant, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties depending on the polyphenol complexes. Particular attention is paid to the content of flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments.
Anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments determining the red, blue and violet color of the fruit. They are glycosides of flavone aglycones (anthocyanidins). Qualitative composition of anthocyanins is specific to the particular plant type.
Subject of this study are the fruits of S. nigra L., S. ebulus L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Vaccinium vitis idaea L., Rubus caesius L. and Ribes nigrum. Wild plants contain a number of chemicals that can affect the vital processes occurring in the human body.
The purpose of this work is to determine the aggregate content of anthocyanin pigments in the fruits of wild bushes and in the juice from the fruits of S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L., to study their chemical composition and to develop new recipes for fruit nectars containing a higher percentage of biologically active substances.
When preparing concentrate of directly pressed juice from the fruits of forest plants most of the polyphenolic compounds are not destroyed.
The basic principle in the compilation of recipes for fruit nectars, incorporating raw material of wild fruits in their composition, is mixing concentrated juice from S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L. with juice from the fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis idaea L., Rubus caesius L. and Ribes nigrum.
The aggregate content of the anthocyanins has been determined using the method of pH differential spectrophotometry. Swallowing the anthocyanins pigments depends on the pH of the solution. In acidic environment, coloring of the most anthocyanins is bright red. By increasing the pH gradually, it turns to dark blue. The difference in the adsorption measured at a wavelength of 510 nm at pH = 1 and pH = 5 is proportional to the content of the anthocyanins pigments.
Three groups of substances refer to vitamin P: flavones, anthocyanins and L-catechins. In nature, these groups are mutually converted, moreover the flavonols through leuco-anthocyanidins can be converted to anthocyanidins or to catechins. The conversion process is running continuously, so in the plant world, these groups are accompanied by one another.
Anthocyanins belong to the P-active substances – the red-cloured substances contained in the studied wild plants.
The aggregate concentration of pigments is relatively determined by one of them, such as the cyanidin-3-glucoside.
Fig.1. Content of anthocyanins in the studied plants
The data given in Fig. 1 show that highest is the content of anthocyanins in S. ebulus L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L., followed by S. nigra L., Rubus caesius L. and Ribes nigrum. The lowest is the content of anthocyanins in Vaccinium vitis idaea L. The red fruits contain 3 to 10 times less anthocyanin pigments than the dark-colored fruits.
To determine the biologically active substances in the fruits of wild plants, S. nigra L. (elderberry) and S. Ebulus L. (grassy danewort thicket) their physical and chemical properties have been studied. The results are given in Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3.
Chemical composition of the fruits of the test plants
|Quantitative indices, %||Vaccinium myrtillus||Vaccinium vitis idaea||S. nigra||Ribes nigrum||Rubus caesius||S. ebulus|
Vitamins composition of the fruits of the test plants
|Quantitative indices,mg%||Vaccinium myrtillus||Vaccinium vitis idaea||S. nigra||Ribes nigrum||Rubus caesius||S. ebulus|
Mineral salts in the fruits of the test plants
|Quantitative indices, mg%||Vaccinium myrtillus||Vaccinium vitis idaea||S. nigra||Ribes nigrum||Rubus caesius||S. ebulus|
The analysis of the results shows that the studied plants are rich in bioactive substances.
The fruit of Ribes nigrum is a vitamin concentrate with high levels of vitamin P, vitamin C and carotene.
The fruit of Rubus caesius L. contains a significant amount of vitamin P. Among microelements highest is the content of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron.
Vaccinium myrtillus L. has various vitamin and mineral composition, but it holds the record in content of manganese among the fruits.
The amount of useful substances, vitamins and minerals is higher as compared to other fruits. For this reason red-coloured fruits are considered products of healthy and rational nutrition. They are useful for various diseases, they help to boost immunity, heal and strengthen the body.
The comparative assessment made to the best nectar versions shows that a tasting committee of large number of experts accepted the four versions presented Fig.2.
Fig.2 Organoleptic profile of developed nectars
Based on the physico-chemical and organoleptic analysis of the developed nectar recipes it can be concluded that the concentrated juice of S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L. added to the nectars prepared of wild plants is an additional source of biologically active substances in their native state and its use in the production of fruit nectars is appropriate.
The juice of S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L. added to the nectars composition not only improves their organoleptic indicators, but also enriches nectars with the vitamins and minerals required for the viability of body.
The results of the research show that the products have high acidity and satisfying the requirements storage stability, and at last but not least, they are pleasant for consumption.
Besides their pleasant taste and appearance, the four nectar versions produced have prophylactic and therapeutic action because of the high content of bioactive substances.
Based on the studies, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- It was found that the fruits of wild bushes and the fruits of black elderberry and grassy danewort thicket contain a complex of biologically active substances.
- 2. Nectars in storage for 12 months does not lead to lowering their quality and to significant losses of biologically active substances
- The presence of vitamins, minerals, pectin and other biologically active substances in the juice of black elderberry and grassy danewort thicket added to the nectars obtained from the fruits of wild plants increases their nutritional value.
- Based on the experiments, the optimum amount of added concentrated juice of elderberry and grassy danewort thicket in recipes of nectars was determined, in order to obtain final products with good organoleptic properties.
- The analysis of the mineral composition has shown that the studied nectars in its composition contain high levels of salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron.
- In the produces nectars highest is the content of vitamin P, vitamin C and β-carotene.
- Based on the studies, it has been found that the combination of fruits of black and grassy danewort thicket and fruits of wild shrubs can be used to produce environmentally friendly products with functional purpose, with very good organoleptic properties, with high nutritional value and medicinal qualities.
- Tutelian VA Spirichev VB, Sukhanov BP, Kudasheva VA Micronutrients in the nutrition of healthy and sick cheloveka.I M:. Kolos.-2002.- p. 424.
- Baraboi VA Khomenko YV The mechanism of anti-stress and radioprotective action of plant phenolic compounds // The Ukrainian Biochemical Journal — 1998. -t.70, №6.-p. 13-23.[schema type=»book» name=»STUDYING THE POSSIBILITY OF USING THE JUICE FROM ELDERBERRY TREE FRUITS AND GRASSY ELDER FRUITS AS AN ADDITIVE IN THE PRODUCTION OF NECTARS USING THE FRUITS OF WILD BUSHES» description=»The chemical composition and total content of anthocyanin pigments in the fruits of the wild bushes and in the juice from the fruits of S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L have been studied. New recipes for juices and nectars containing higher percentage of biologically active substances have been developed. » author=»Georgieva Antoaneta Vassileva» publisher=»Басаранович Екатерина» pubdate=»2016-12-18″ edition=»euroasia-science_28.04.2016_4(25)» ebook=»yes» ]