Work of transport is always consistent with numerous conditions and parameters of the systems in which it operates. Along with the fact that the process of transport services is affected by various external environmental factors, all the same basic limitations imposed on his work on the basis of internal parameters of the system, due to different requirements for these systems by the end users of goods and services.
One of those requirements ,which is namely by the ultimate customers the value of demand for goods, whether that be raw materials or finished products, establishes an important initial data for the system maintenance supply chain (SC), in particular such as the size of the order, the frequency of deliveries, and others.
Particularly characteristics of the organization of transport affects the ability to create stocks of certain tangible assets in the SC.
If stocks cannot be created, the system of transport services in the SC operates on a «just in time» and regulated by the daily requirement of traffic volume, otherwise — there is a possibility to control the size the ordered party, offered for transport over longer time frames. A prerequisite for increasing the efficiency of transport work is the accounting of factors to determine the system in which it will operate in accordance with relevant regularities.From this it follows that the initial data for both external and internal environment of the service system SC impose certain restrictions in addition simulated the transport organization warehouse processes. From this it follows that the initial data for both external and internal environment of the SC service system impose certain restrictions in addition to emulate a transport organization and warehouse processes.
To increase the effectiveness of the system of transport services SC at the current scheduling is necessary to compare the set of input data and trace their dynamics. These actions with the system approach and the discrete nature of the processes allow us to classify and evaluate the system of transportation and warehousing, on the basis of the models of its functioning at any time of the planning period and thus calculate the value of its work, which correspond to reality.It should emphasized that statistic of eventual result in the SC should be performed out exclusively from the point of view of a complex a systematic approach rather than by optimizing the performance of individual of its subsystems, because a lack of consistency within a single SC can lead to significant loss of overall efficiency. Thus, reviewing of the transportation and warehousing in service systems SC, we should not set ourselves the task of optimization of transport work studying it separately from the inventory management system. As long as this decision in making an assessment of financial results is not the best(the good one). In today’s market conditions is very important that the SC provides the flexibility to respond to changes in demand. In this regard, we need to understand how shift in demand affect on the configuration of the SC and the organization of transportation and warehousing. In the case as the budget calculation of transportation and warehousing , requires a clear and regulated rationale for decisions. Incorrect definition of natural parameters of transport and warehouses leads to what obtained on the basis of their values of economic parameters and financial results also do not correspond to reality. Therefore, in the current market conditions relevant question of improving the accuracy of planning analysis and economical evaluation of the functioning of transportation and warehousing and a huge practical significance acquire methods perspective analysis when there is a need for management decision-making subject to the evaluation of all possible situations and making a select from one of several alternatives. In this work we aimed to develop a model that will allow to plan and manage of supply shipments at cargo dispatches.
Model construction of transport and storage costing. Approach to building a model of the construction of transport and storage costing namely costs and storage in direct SC is that the fundamental factor influencing for the configuration of the transport and storage costs, is the size of ordered goods, which offered for transportation. This factor, in turn, depends on the volume of consumption in the reporting day, and of the current commodity-supply in warehousing. Statement of the problem of model construction is as follows: there is a direct SC, in which occurs the delivery between the central and several peripheral warehouses, with the possibility of creating a place of insurance stock and current stock. In the central warehouse is located homogenous cargo. Daily in service system SC occurs calculation the size of the order for each of the peripheral points (points of sale), based on an assessment of factors affecting it, namely the need for the product and its current stock. Due to the fact that system can vary the number of participants, namely the number of items unloading of goods, and hence configuration of the system can comply with both the radial transport scheme and single-route .
In constructing the model allowed, the following assumptions and limitations:
— central and peripheral warehouses start and finish their work at the same time;
— the number of peripheral warehouses that may place orders for delivery, it is known;
— the distance between the warehouses are known;
— the total demand for goods does not exceed the capacity of the central loading point ;
— there is one car in the system , which can serve planned volume of traffic;
— type of the cargo, the actual cargo capacity, systems and duration of transport work and warehouse operations of each branch are known;
— the actual stock level in points of sale of goods does not exceed the daily sales;
— initial inventory levels and daily sales in points of sale of goods realization are known;
— the time during which the goods have been delivered to the points of implementation, limited to the duration work of the system;
— the task a set of routes vehicle is performed on the principle of the range of distances «from highest to lowest»;
— delivered cargo per trip may not be less than the actual;
The initial data are qnтs -rated capacity of the vehicle t, γ — static coefficient of capacity utilization ,qγmc- actual load capacity of the car t, Vm — the average technical speed of the car k.p.h. , tn — loading car time h., tp -unloading time car h., Тс — the operating time of logistic system h. , CPp — central loading point, Qccp the maximum possible Number of goods that can be shipped from CPp tones(t), Pрi i- point (station)of sale of goods , where r- variable of number of stations , i= 1,2,…,n; CPp-1,
Cpp- the distance between the central loading station and I – station of sale of goods km , qpi –daily sales in I – station of sales tones, qpi – initial inventory level sales in I – station of sales tones, Сch tariff rate for one hour of work car ,roubles (rub), Скм – tariff rate for one hour of car mileage ,roubles (rub), Схр — storage costs per ton of product per day roubles .
First should determine the participants of the delivery system. To determine the participants of the delivery system, we perform necessary verification of delivery to each i-station of sales.
Pрi = (1)
In formula (1) compares the magnitude of the current stock with daily sales. For the first day of cost planning QmeK J+1 is known and equals qNzi — initial inventory level. . For the second and subsequent days of planning the size of the current stock is calculated by the formula:
, where qzaKij — Size of supplied cargo to the of the i-point of sale of goods in the j- day .
Size of party qzak ij, which is to be delivered to the address of the i-point of sale of goods in the j- day is determined by the following formula
if after calculating by the formula 3 , order size is equal to zero this means that the calculation has been made for the point of sale, which is not among the participants in the system in accordance with the test conditions indicated in formula 1.
The conditional test: the total amount of cargo that must be delivered to the system ,, does not exceed the capacity of the central loading point Qcpi the maximum possible amount of cargo that can skip the through the central loading point (operational characteristic).
Qzакij quantity of goods that should be delivered to the I -point of implementation in the j-day . On the basis of data on the size ordering should be counted the number of rides to each branch :
During the work of the car can performed a certain number of trips in the system. Duration of trip car on the i-branch of the system depends on the duration of the implementation of transport and warehouse operations. Time of vehicle operation on the I — branch of the system is determined by the formula:
,where I цpi n—>I the distance between the central loading point CPp and i- Points of sale , км; tpi — time of unloading at the warehouse in i- Points of sale, h.
Mileage on i-branch :
Value of the last idle run corresponds to the smallest value of distance from the Cpp to the points of sale,which placed their orders for delivery to their address.
, where l cpi->iкp — the distance between the Cpp and the last i-station in the order of service,km.
The formula for calculating the time of vehicle operation in the system with the exception of the last idle run is as follows:
Now we need to check the fulfillment of the condition: time work of the car in the system in j-th day does not exceed the duration of functioning of the system. Otherwise, the car does not have time to execute planned set of tasks in conditions of considered system
Transportation costs can be calculated on the basis of the accepted tariff rates for 1 kilometer or 1 hour of working of car .
The cost of transport services can be calculated according to the formulas 11 and 12:
where Сch- tariff rate for 1 hour of work of car
The cost of storing inventory in a warehouse in the points of sale of goods calculated based on the cost of storage of 1 ton per day.
The size of the goods to be paid, equals to the current stock Qtek- ij. Thus, the cost of storing inventory in a warehouse in the I — point of sale in the j — day is calculated as follows:
Pic 1. The dependence of the total annual cost to the SC
Improving the theoretical propositions concerning transport and warehouse processes developed model for more accurate planning of both natural and economic indicators work of service system of costumers in the SC. Thus, summing up the results of the work performed ,a task that was posed to develop a model has been performed. Our model is a solution to the actual question planning and analysis of the processes of transport and storage services. The developed model is the solution of urgent problems of planning and analysis of the processes of transport and warehousing services. Usage of this model in practice allows you to simulate the flow of transport and storage processes within for operational current planning that allows you to make more informed management decisions thereby increasing the efficiency of the whole system of supply chain management.
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- Chebakova, Е. О. Feasibility planning the transport process in the supply chain, 2009, pp 320.
- Nickolin V.I., Vetvitsky Е.Е., Mochalin S.М., Lankov N.i. Fundamentals of the theory of transport systems ( freight),1999, pp 283. 6. Kabanec D.U. Methodical instructions for practical training in the discipline » theory of transport processes and systems » for bachelors profile «Organization and Management of Transportation » full-time education, 2009 pp 38 с.7. Nickolin V.I., Vetvitsky Е.Е. Organization of transport parcel : Proc. allowance, 1991, pp 91.
- Vasiliev N.М. Road transport : the organization and efficiency , 2010, pp 320.
- Milaev V. I. International Journal of Advanced , vol. 3, no. 2, (2013) с.34.Studie. St. Louis, Missouri 63118, USA. M[schema type=»book» name=»Planning of transport-warehouse costs at organization of delivery with car dispatches» description=»The authors present the model of cargo delivery planning with car dispatches allowing optimization of transport-warehouse costs and modeling of delivery process with aim to determine more optimal variant from the majority of alternative.» author=»Khoruzhenko E. S., Mochalin S. M.» publisher=»БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА» pubdate=»2017-03-13″ edition=»ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_30.05.2015_05(14)» ebook=»yes» ]