While the land management activities are summarized for the last 50 years, Mongolia mainly focused on research, survey, improvement of legal framework on land management, providing information to public, implementation of land management theory-practice and approaches in field of defining land resources and official purpose of natural resources use from 1954 to 1975, proper use planning for land resources and land associated resources, development of the feasibility study and introduction of the land resources into production from 1975 to 1990, study, assess and protection of land resources.
Current situation of land use is complicated issue in nationwide. The rational land planning is very important for effective land use. For our country, city planning is developed in own ways instead of urban planning. Thus land use studies are important for urban re-planning in accordance with scientific urban planning or standard /construction/ by using detailed land use studies.
The research purpose is to assess the implementation of the Land use Plan of Soums /sub-province/ and Aimags /province/, and to define opportunity to include corresponding land protection issues into land management, land use planning and local development program and to provide citizen participation and to process recommendation.
- Assess and monitor the General Land use Plan of Aimags;
- Assess and monitor implementation of yearly plan the soum land management;
- Assess and monitor “Monitoring and result assessment for implementation of the Land Use Plan”
RESEARCH MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
The basic material required for recommendation is processed by using survey, consolidation and analysis methods. Activities included in the Land Use Plan were introduced in way of organizing the meeting and discussion, and questionnaire is collected by individual and group interviewing methods and analyzed for the recommendation. The survey was conducted among residents, herders, staffs and management staffs using by questionnaire method in order to study current situation and plan implementation of the land use and management. The data collection result was processed by using integration, assessment and analysis methods. The Land Use Plan implementation is evaluated by using comparative method which analyses previous material and studies current situation in accordance with the instruction for monitoring the implementation of the Land use Plan and evaluation of its result.
1.Processing and implementation monitoring for the General Land Use Plan of Aimags
The General Land Use Plan of Uvs aimag was processed by term of reference instead of approved instruction. For considering the structure and content of the General Land use Plan of Khovd Aimag, it was planned with three stages. But there isn’t any planning for every Soum. The planning was processed by main category of the United Land Territory. 78% of Participants answered that the General Land use Plan of Khovd Aimag need to be updated and renewed. For processing of the General Land use Plan of Khovd and Uvs Aimags, the Khovd Aimag plans 5 activities and Uvs Aimag plans 7 activities in average.
The General Land use Plan of Khovd and Uvs are summarized, as follows:
- Land area, changed by current land use plan, of the General Land Use Plan for the Khovd Aimag is shown integrally with 3 stages. Total territory is divided into 3 areas and 6 ranges by using the zones categories of Mongolian territory, and planned for 2007-2010, 2011-2015 and 2016-2023. For the question that people’s voice are weather included or not in the General Land Use Plan for the Aimags, 37,5 percent of the participants answered that people’s voice was included but 62,5percent of the participants answered that people’s voice wasn’t included in the land plan. This shows that lack of citizen participation. For implementation of the General Land Management Plan for the Aimags, 37,5 percent of the Participants answered “enough” and 50 percent of Participants answered “moderate”. For considering the reason of non-implementation of the General Land Use Plan for the Aimags, 50.4 percent of Participants answered the planning is done groundless, 19.6 percent of Participants answered residents and herders disagree with each other, and percent of participants answered Governors’ skill of Bags are not good.
There is required to renew methodological instruction, to take measure for pasture planning based on ecological capacity by using modern methodological technology, and to process the planning providing citizen participation based on basic research because lack of processing land use, reserves and planning of the Aimags for 12-16 years and processing documents in frame of its terms of reference and instruction as well as insufficient of monitoring by ALAGAC
- Monitoring for implementation of the planning of the soums
For the Land Use Plan of the Soums, the planning is common. It is planned for owning, processing and using. But the features of the local areas such as ecological capacity, opportunities to earn income using reserves and land resources are doesn’t considered properly in the plan. 6-8 activities are planned in the yearly plan the soum land management of Durvuljin Soum of Zavkhan Aimag, Darvi Soum of Khovd and Bukhmurun Soum of Uvs Aimag and planned activities haven’t been changed. Darvi Soum plans 250,5 hectare area, Durvuljin Soum plans 4932,1 hectare area and Bukhmurun Soum plans 9,9 hectare area on 6-8 locations compared to total area and land use situation. Darvi Soum includes 3,2 percent, Durvuljin Soum includes 71,2 percent and Bukhmurun Soum includes 9,7 percent of the territory in the planning compared to total number of the households.
Implementation yearly plan for land management of the soum
|Area / ha/||The
number of eligible
|Area planing /ha/, number households||250.5||4932.1||9.9||23||428||53|
|Area in soum /ha/, number households||5,604||7,260||3,701||722||601||541|
|Land use Planinig implemantation
For considering the implementation of yearly plan the soum land management of the above Soums, achievement of yearly plan the soum land management are 18,9-25 percent in three Soums, and for the questionnaire result, 77,8 percent of Participants answered “the land planning implementation is not enough”. As seeing above, the ways to improve the implementation is to plan the proposed measures which are could be implemented within a year in yearly plan the soum land management, and to process it in accordance with the General Land use Plan.
Cause of incomplete legal environment on the land management, the land plans of the Soums are made differently and processed by only approaches as well as difficult to implement. The planning principle and approaches are not clear and the land planning activities which don’t cover the total area are carried out.
Disadvantages and measures taken in the further:
- The yearly plan the soum land management of the soum isn’t processed covering total territory in category of the United Land Territory. 91,2 percent of planning is unrealistic and inconsistent with the land use. It shows that the land planning should be processed reasonably.
- 79,3 percent of total Participants answered the General Land Use Plan and annual planning are not implement causing lack of funding. The small amount of fund is annually budgeted for restoration of mining area but the fund is spent to other soums instead of the land impacted adversely by the mining operation. Restoration activities in the degraded areas Soums and local area is very important.
- Citizen participation is not enough to the Land Use Plan. Experts of Governor’s Office need to appoint the working team for allowing residents to participate in the planning and to build wealth creation capacity and to organize works to introduce the Land Use Plan openly to the public. The survey result showing that 75,8 percent of participants answered they have no information of the Land Use Plan or information is insufficient but their 92,6 percent interest to participate in the planning and to cooperate.
Figure 1.Trends participation
For the residents’ participatory attitude to the planning, you can see from above diagram that the residents have great interest in cooperation and participation in field of reduction of land degradation, biodiversity conservation and proper use of the natural resources.
4.Mapping work of yearly plan the sum land management of the soum isn’t done. As seeing the yearly plan the soum land management processing and implementation, 6-8 activities included in the planning hasn’t been included in planning map and in ARC GIS geographic information system. These are not met with the principle provided in the 4.4 Section of the Instruction.
- 5. Measures taken for reducing land degradation haven’t been included in the Land Use Plan. Although the measures taken for reducing land degradation are included in the Land Use Plan, these aren’t implemented. For asking how the mining operation, oil reserve, range, location and natural resource influence to the land use, 28 percent of the Participants answered “strong” and 37,5 percent of the participants answered “moderate”. For the question asking the reason of the land degradation impacts, 27.9 of the Participants answered it is caused by climate impact, 2 of the Participants answered it is caused by ungrounded the Land Management Plan, 15.3 of the Participants answered it is caused by disagreement between citizens and herders, 17.1 of the Participants answered it is caused by number livestock, 25.2 of the Participants answered it is caused by no land protection measure. As seeing above, reason related to only the Land Management Plan covers 56.7 percent.
- Monitoring mechanism for implementing and processing yearly plan land management of the Soum is not enough. There isn’t any difference between implementation and non-implementation of the Land Management Plan. In other words, management of responsibility, promotion and activation are needed.
- Implementation monitoring for “Guideline for implementation monitoring of the Land Use Plan and result assessment”
Some disadvantage sides are observed. For example: when implementation monitoring of the Land Use Plan is executed in accordance with above guideline, the criteria is inappropriate, performance assessment of the land Manager is complicated, some tables are redundant and contents are repeated. Working team, appointed by Order numbered А/62 of February 20, 2013 by Administration of Land Affairs, Geodesy and Cartography, inspected and evaluated the implementation of laws, regulation and procedure under the laws in accordance with criteria /above mentioned instruction had not been approved yet / provided in the Operation Instruction of the Land manager Job of ALAGAC in Jargalant soum, Khovd aimag. This inspection and assessment had 7 indicators and result was rated at 73 percent.
As seeing above, implementation rate of the Land Use Plan has slight progress comparing with 56 percent of implementation rate of the Land use Plan in Khovd Aimag in 2013 and survey result done among residents and specialists in 2016. These facts ensure conditions to assess and inspect the implementation of the Land Use Plan, and to reprocess and renew the instruction.
- There are results that for question asking implementation of yearly plan the soum land management, 77.8 percent of the Participants answered “poor”, and 22,3 percent of implementation was rated in average by inspection of yearly plan the sum land management. For example: 7 kinds of activities were planned in Darvi soum and implementation was rated at 18.9 percent, 6 kinds of activities were planned in Bukhmurun soum and implementation was rated at at 25 percent, and implementation was rated at 23 in Bukhmurun soum;
- Should consider negative sides such as yearly plan the soum use plan processing, implementing, discussing, approving procedure and principle are unclear, yearly plan the soum land management plans developed differently, lack of performance assessment ways, planning principle is lost, the citizen participation is not provided, planning is processed rely on specialist and total territory isn’t included to the planning.
The legal framework on the land planning should be focused in the further;
- For improving the citizen participating on implementation of the Land use Plan, 63 percent of percent of the Participants answered “works to increase the citizen participation should be organized” and 23.4 percent of percent of the participants answered “Head of the Bag and residents should cooperate”. For the implementation on the Land use Plan, 72.5 percent of the Participants answered “participation of the provincial administration is not enough” and 80 percent of percent of the Participants answered “participation of Head of the Bag is not enough”. Works to provide and activate citizen participation and to build wealth creation capacity should be organized.
- 60.5% percent of the participants answered “pasture has pressure and adverse impact causing mining operation”.
- General land use plan in Uvs, Khovd aimags, 2003-2023,
- Yearly plan the soum land management in Darvi, Durvuljin, Bukhmurun soum, 2013-2015,
- “Monitoring and result assessment for implementation of the Land Use Plan”, 2013,
- Refort in land classification in Mongolia, 2013-2015,ANALYSIS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LAND USE PLANThis research addresses implementation of the Land use Plan for Darvi, Bukhmurun and Durvuljin soums /sub-provisions/ located in Khovd, Uvs and Zavkhan aimags /provisions/ of Mongolian western region, appro-priate methods for processing documents, inspecting and assessing implementation procedure and offering fur-ther measures taken for serious issues.Written by: Gerlee.Sh, Munkh-Ireedui.KhPublished by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНАDate Published: 04/12/2017Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_30.03.2017_03(36)_часть 1Available in: Ebook