Currently, the successful development of the regions is largely dependent on the use of inland specific factors to create value in the global markets, causing impossibility of a single universal strategy for all regions, as each area has a different potential, unique ability to implement innovation. Therefore, the emphasis of government auditing not only focus on the correctness and feasibility of the formation and use of public resources, but also on the final results of the management of public resources, the quality of the study of socio-economic development of the regions, their prospects and performance. Despite the fact that in different periods of economic development, there were various regional development strategy, the goal was to ensure their economic and social prosperity of the population in a certain area . If there is a constant goal of ways to achieve and environmental factors have changed significantly.
When choosing the strategic directions of development of the regions it is advisable to use a differentiated approach, which is due to the high differentiation of regions on the existing level of development and potential.
The same regions not, there are long mastered and newly mastered, there are central and peripheral, there are those where the population is growing, and there are those where reduced in some dominates the population in older age groups, in other high proportion of young people, etc. Regions differ in the level of saturation productive forces, the social structure, availability of raw materials and minerals, the distance from the highly industrial and cultural centers of the capital.
For example, one only Tyumen region (together with its autonomous districts) made in 2012 – 54.1 % of all production mining industry gave 68 % of all oil (including gas condensate) and 91 % of natural gas. The share of the Tyumen region in the total GRP of the country reached 12.4 % (second place after Moscow). Nearly 100 % of all Russian diamonds produced in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the predominant share of precious metal ores and many non-ferrous metals are produced in 3 – 4 regions of East Siberia and the Far East .
Leading Russian scientists concerned with regional development, has not yet developed a unified classification of regions. A variety of approaches to the analysis of regional issues, the very concept of the region and its functions determine the presence of a huge number of classifications of regions. Regions can be classified by source of primary production specialization, such as agribusiness, transport, fishery industrial, gas industrial and others.
The most common classification – one basis: the depressed regions and donor regions. There are more complex classification – on the set of three features:
1) the presence of significant natural resources;
2) the level of economic development;
3) standard of living.
Regions partitioned by the degree of well-being, both in terms of both production and investment. The classification of regions laid the following criteria: the level and pace of economic development, the type of the territorial structure, the ratio of population density, population growth, the nature and rate of industrial specialization and others .
To develop innovative social strategies of regional development is not developed adequate to modern conditions tool that allows identifying priority areas. In this study, we have developed an approach that allows identifying the main social development strategy of the regions in the innovation trajectory, and the main mechanisms for the implementation of these directions. The process of developing social strategies of innovative development of the region consists of the following steps:
— the choice of indicators of socio-economic development of the regions, based on the analysis of which the decision to classify those or other areas of that group;
— grouping of regions, in accordance with specific indicators of regional development;
— determination of the type of regional development necessary for the correct choice of the strategic directions of development of the regions;
— the definition of mechanisms for the implementation of social policies for the innovative development of certain types of regions.
As a basis for the development of social policies innovative development of regions, we propose to use a matrix of “Index of Regional Development – Index of the standard of living in the region”.
The index of the standard of living of the population of the region is seen as an integral characteristic, which is determined based on an assessment of factors for the following units:
1) production (volume of foreign trade, financial security in the region, the total retail turnover and paid services to the population, calculated per capita);
2) resource and infrastructure (investment in fixed assets, fixed assets of industries, road density ratio) and social (officially registered unemployed, the ratio of per capita income and per capita subsistence level, the proportion of the population with incomes below the subsistence level, graduates of public higher and secondary schools).
Indicators of living standards and innovative development of the region represent a certain type of convolution estimates more private properties and criteria of this concept, which, in turn, can be represented as different combinations of reporting statistics  and in some cases the relevant expert evaluations. In the construction of integral indicators of living standards and innovative development in the absolute value of the resulting indicators will be influenced by three main factors:
- a) selecting a base for comparison;
- b) the sample reporting of statistical indicators on the basis of which must be formed integral indicator;
- c) the choice of method of integration of individual private performance in the summary characteristics (type of model, its constant parameters).
Integral index of innovative development in the region is calculated from the determination of the place of business innovation in the economy (the number of employees in innovative business to total employment in the economy, the share of revenues in innovative entrepreneurship to the total revenue by industry sector).
It should be noted that to achieve various levels of control may be used by various factors. The proposed methodos involves the rationale for the selection of an overall strategy of innovative development in various regions of Russia at the federal level.
At the core of the matrix depending on the model level of innovative development of the region in the standard of living in the region. According to this innovative product in its development takes four steps:
1) entry into the market an innovative product (high level of quality of life / low innovation development);
2) growth (high quality of life / high index of innovative development);
3) maturity (low levels of quality of life / high index of innovative development);
4) recession (low levels of quality of life / low innovation development catastrophe).
Matrix strategic directions of regional development “Index of Regional Development – Index of the standard of living of the region” is shown in Fig. 1.
|The index of the standard of
living in the region
Index of Regional Development
The high level of quality of life / low innovation development
High quality of life / high index of innovative development
Low levels of quality of life / high index of innovative development
Low levels of quality of life / low innovation development
Figure 1 – Matrix strategic directions of regional development “Index of Regional Development – Index of the standard of living of the region”
The basis of the matrix is based on two assumptions.
- The region has a high index of innovative development, takes effect as a result of its competitive position in relation to other regions. It follows that there is a significant increase in total commercial effect region because the effect of the introduction of new technologies is multiplied by the number of firms in the region that have achieved success in their implementation and promotion. Thus, the index of the standard of living increases. That is why one of the most important elements of regional innovation policy is to create conditions for the most rapid diffusion of technology within a particular specialization.
- The presence in the growing market in the region innovative means an increased need for financial resources for their development; regions are increasingly forced to choose a niche at the same time more and more rigid set to achieve high competitive position. This leads to the selection of industries, to the emergence of new industries that are defined in terms of “comparative advantages” (which differ in certain regions) make it possible to clearly identify the most specialized technology policy, that is, the direction of the concentration of the intellectual potential of the nation.
In the case where both hypotheses are made, it is possible to distinguish four groups of classification of regions corresponding to the various priority strategic objectives and financial needs.
With the implementation of various strategic directions aimed at achieving different priorities, can be used identical mechanisms. The choice of strategy development in the region determined by the level of innovation development and standard of living of the population of the region.
Regions in the quadrants 1A, 3A, 4A, have a high risk investment funds. Therefore, for such a group of regions expedient implementation of anti-crisis strategies, involving the creation of favorable conditions for business (creation of enterprise zones, legal support) that will allow the overflow of funds from the regions with a high level of development, stimulate economic activity and employment. For this group of regions recommended diversified growth strategy, this is to select the priority directions of development of innovative entrepreneurship.
Regions with medium and high attractiveness of the environment and the middle and high competitiveness of innovative entrepreneurship (2A, 3A) have a significant share of large enterprises, so the basic strategy is the development of innovative entrepreneurship in order to prevent its removal from the market. According to the Department of Economic Security of Commerce and Industry Chamber, 3/4 ongoing acquisitions are hostile, i.e. taking into account the dominant techniques require buying shares with the use of blackmail, threats and bribery, illegal access to the register of shareholders and others.
Based on the above can be formulated social innovation development strategy, recommended for different regions, depending on the quadrant in which they are located.
1A. Implementation of developmental financing, which will give an opportunity to improve the infrastructure of support of innovative entrepreneurship. Of particular importance is a developed industrial (and social) infrastructure. Creation of industrial and science parks is also an important tool for improving the investment attractiveness of the area. Can be used financial incentives: subsidies, soft loans, tax incentives, including by allowing accelerated depreciation, provision of transport services and energy at reduced tariffs. It is advisable to selectively stimulate innovative entrepreneurship development in priority sectors of the economy, depending on the specifics of the region.
2A. In this segment, located regions with a significant role of big business. Therefore, legal support innovative entrepreneurship in order to prevent its displacement from the market. Supporting the implementation of funding by providing tax incentives. With limited investments special importance is the activation of innovative business. It may at first serve as a “catalyst” of growth of manufacturing industries. Here prime importance deregulation aimed at overcoming numerous barriers, as well as tax breaks.
3A. Creation of legal conditions for the development of innovative entrepreneurship. Establishing relationships of innovative business with big business (outsourcing, subcontracting, technology parks), which will allow, as the experience of developed countries, through the use of innovative business potential to increase the region’s competitiveness and living standards.
4A. The promotion of innovation, which is to establish at the federal level prescribing measures for the implementation to support innovation. As practice shows doing business in various individual enterprises, development strategy determined by the settings of senior management. The same conclusion can be drawn for the individual regions where the implementation of effective support in the field of innovation depends on the attitude of the local authorities, causing the overall regional policy.
The creation of new platforms for the development of innovative entrepreneurship (enterprise zones), which on the basis of legislation local authorities will have the opportunity to implement a set of measures to stimulate business: tax incentives, provision of land for new construction, lease of concessional old buildings under renovation and etc. This will give an opportunity to create new jobs and ensure the flow of capital in depressed regions. These areas may not have the resources and intellectual capacity to develop projects on their own programs, so it is advisable to provide for a system of assistance to them by the regional and federal authorities, including expert analysis. When you select a large problem areas easier to attract investment from a variety of socio-economic conditions in a given area ubiquitous guaranteed state aid . The creation of new places of employment has beneficial effects due to the decrease in the unemployment rate due to commuting; improve the image of the entire region.
The proposed method of developing social strategies of innovative development of the region intended for implementation at the federal level in determining the overall conceptual directions of development for a particular region. Implementation of the strategy of innovative development of regions will:
— to achieve sustainable socio-economic growth of the regions based on the integrated use of organizational, political, psychological, economic, material, labor and other factors; take part in the choice of solutions for the management and implementation of the strategy to all social forces – representatives of economic, financial, scientific institutions, the public;
— to generate confidence in the successful outcome of the reforms, opening the main objectives and guidelines of development for a long period of time; sustainable development in the future;
— identify targets entrepreneurs, potential domestic and foreign investors to help them make quick decisions based on vision for the future;
— to acquire and maintain competitive advantages territories;
— streamline the allocation of resources;
— ensure the establishment of a partnership of business with the government, non-governmental organizations;
— provide a concentration of efforts in key areas of development, is the most promising for the region.
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- Roy O. Regional marketing strategy // Bulletin of Omsk University. Ser. The Economy. 2013. No. 3. – P. 20-23.WORKING OUT OF SOCIAL STRATEGY OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONSWritten by: P´yanov Alexander Ivanovich, Karapetyan Sona KaroevnaPublished by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНАDate Published: 04/08/2017Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_30.04.2015_4(13)Available in: Ebook