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Название журнала: Евразийский Союз Ученых — публикация научных статей в ежемесячном научном журнале, Выпуск: , Том: , Страницы в выпуске: -
Данные для цитирования: . ENRICHMENT OF GOAT YOGURT WITH BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FATTY ACIDS FROM APRICOT KERNELS AND AVOCADO PUREE // Евразийский Союз Ученых — публикация научных статей в ежемесячном научном журнале. Сельскохозяйственные науки. ; ():-.

The biologically active compounds are of great scientific interest as a source of nutrients of animal or vegetable origin. High fat foods have a beneficial impact on human health, particularly on prevention of cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms [1, 5]. Useful fats are composed of monounsaturated fatty acids and omega-3-fatty acids. An example of healthy vegetable oils and fats are olive oil, flaxseed oil, oils from different  kinds of nuts- walnuts, apricots, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds and more and avocado. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) omega-3 fatty acid and linoleic acid (LA) — omega-6 fatty acid are essential fatty acids to humans. ALA is a precursor of two important long chain omega-3 fatty acids- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)[4].

The apricot kernels are rich in lipids, proteins and fiber and are therefore useful for human nutrition. Sweet apricot kernel contains more oil than bitter pit, such as oleic and linoleic acid is around 92 g / 100 g of total fatty acids in apricot kernel. Gupta et al., [2], establishes the contents of oleic acid from 0,48 to 0,78%, linoleic- 20,5 to 27,76%, linolenic from 0,4 to 1,42% and palmitic acid from 0,4 to 1,42% and vitamin E from 72 to 107 mg / 100g depending on the area of ​​cultivation of apricot trees. The apricot kernels contain from 42,2 to 57,2 % fat, protein from 15,1% to 24,2%, fiber from 4,06% to 7,63%, which is apricot kernel oil are widely used in the food industry [6]. Ozdemir and Topuz [7] found that in the fatty acid profile of avocado oil prevail palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acid. Ikeyi Adachukwu et al., [3], giving identical results for fatty acid composition of avocados.

The bulk tank samples were analysed of goat milk from Bulgarian White Dairy Breed, which is produced yogurt and yogurt with supplements of apricot kernels (5, 10 and 15%) and mashed avocado (5%). The extraction of total lipids was carried out by the method of Roese-Gottlieb, by methyl and petroleum ether and consequent methylation with the aid of sodium methylate (CH3ONa, Merсk, Darmstadt) and dehydrating with NaHSO4.H2O. The fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) was analyzed with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu-2010 (Kioto, Japan) equipped with flame-ionizing detector and automatic injection system (AOC-2010i).

Conducted preliminary research on fatty acids composition of goat milk from White Bulgarian breed on the second lactation which it is produced yogurt and added 5, 10 and 15% apricot kernel and avocado. The amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and yogurt are not significantly different. The Avocados is poor of saturated fatty acids- 21,92 g / 100g fat and rich of unsaturated fatty acids, which of them is polyunsaturated are 30,59 g / 100g fat and monounsaturated- 43,87 g / 100g fat difference from apricot kernels, which has been found that saturated fatty acids are 43,18 g / 100g fat, monounsaturated fatty acids- 49,56 g / 100g fat and polyunsaturated- 23,53 g / 100g fat. The content of omega-3 fatty acids in apricot kernels and avocados respectively was 0,17 and 0,14 g / 100g fat. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk and yoghurt are respectively 0,31 and 0,33 g / 100g fat in avocados is 0,03 g / 100g of fat, in apricot kernels 0,02 g / 100g of fat and then adding to the yogurt of different concentration retains its value only in yogurt with 15% supplement of avokado- 0,32 g / 100g fat.

Table 1.

Groups fatty acids (g / 100g fat) in goat milk, yoghurt and yoghurt with additives apricot (flour) and avocado (mashed)

FA Аvokado Apricot Milk Yogurt Yogurt-5%AК Yogurt-10%AК Yogurt-15%AК Yogurt-5%A
C-16:0 16,78 22,33 27,14 27,46 12,33 15,87 18,09 27,32
C-18:0 1,37 3,07 20,79 20,48 15,59 19,84 24,10 20,58
C-18:1c9 37,88 46,58 16,57 16,92 12,31 7,55 42,83 18,50
C-18:2c9,12 26,28 0,48 0,08 0,06 0,09 0,05 0,00 0,08
gC-18:3n6 3,01 21,18 1,67 1,70 1,37 0,15 2,38 1,66
aC-18:3n3 0,02 0,04 0,71 0,71 0,07 0,14 0,02 0,72
SFA 21,92 43,18 79,58 79,52 33,96 44,92 47,89 78,44
MUFA 43,87 49,56 20,06 20,30 51,81 26,26 46,78 22,11
PUFA 30,59 23,53 3,24 3,22 2,01 1,61 3,40 3,45
Σ n-3 0,17 0,41 0,91 0,91 0,32 0,24 0,12 1,05
Σ n-6 30,37 23,05 2,08 2,07 1,64 0,45 3,43 2,13
Σ n-6/Σn-3 174,36 55,86 2,29 2,28 5,12 1,89 29,50 2,03
CLA 0,03 0,02 0,31 0,33 0,03 0,17 0,00 0,32
ΣCLA 0,07 0,11 0,34 0,33 0,11 0,93 0,02 0,34
ΣC-18:1Trans 2,94 1,89 1,97 1,90 1,62 1,44 1,96 2,07
Σ C-18:1Cis- 38,02 46,67 17,17 17,52 12,52 7,75 43,12 19,13
BFA 3,80 0,34 1,44 1,46 3,89 20,60 2,37 1,47

The saturated fatty acids in avocado and apricot kernels prevails C16:0. The additives of apricot kernels to yogurt leads to reduction of C16: 0 and C18: 0 in the new product. The Avocado’s and apricot’s kernels are rich in oleic acid, due to  their additive leads to enrichment of the fat fraction in yoghurt when using a high concentration of the additive (15%). The Avocados have a high concentration of C-18: 2c9- 26,28 g / 100g fat and the apricot kernels have an gC-18: 3n6- 21,18 g / 100g fat. The additive of 15% apricot kernel affects the concentration of gamma-linolenic acid from 1,67 to 2,38 g / 100g fat.

Enrichment of goat milk with apricot kernels leads to an increase of oleic acids (C-18:1c9), g-linolenic acid and decrease of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA and omega-3 fatty acid. The avocado additives increase MUFA, PUFA, omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid and oleic acids and decrease the g-linolenic acid, SFA and maintaining the content of CLA and the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid.


1.     Denke M. Dietary fats, fatty acids, and their effects on lipoproteins // Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 2006. – Vol. 8. — №6.- P. 466- 471.

2.     Gupta A., Sharma P. C., Tilakratne B. M. K. S., Verma A. K. Studies on phisico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of wild apricot (Prunus armenica Linn.) kernel oil // Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 2012. – Vol. 3. — №3.- P. 366- 370.

3.     Ikeyi Adachukwu P., Ogbonna Ann O., Comfort Nnaji C. Assessment of fatty acid profile of avocado pear (Persea Americana) obtained from Nsukka area of Enugu state, Nigeria // The Experiment. 2013. – Vol. 12. — №2.- P. 762-767.

  1. Innis S. Fatty acids and early human development // Early Human Development. – Vol. 83.- P. 761–766
  2. Kris-Etherton P., Yu-Poth S., Sabaté J., Ratcliffe H., Zhao G., Etherton T. Nuts and their bioactive constituents: effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk 1,2 // Am J Clin Nutr. 1999. – Vol. 70.-P. 504S–511S
  3. Özcan M. M., Özalp C., Ünver A., Arslan D., Dursun N. Properties of Apricot Kernel and Oils as Fruit Juice Processing Waste // Food and Nutrition Sciences. – Vol. 1.-P. 31-37
  4. Ozdemir F., Topuz A. Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period // Food Chemistry. – Vol. 86.-P. 79–83[schema type=»book» name=»ENRICHMENT OF GOAT YOGURT WITH BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FATTY ACIDS FROM APRICOT KERNELS AND AVOCADO PUREE» description=»The area proposed for the research of yogurt from goat milk of the Bulgarian White Dairy Breed and enrichment of biological active fatty acids from apricot kernels and avocado puree. The bulk tank samples were analysed of goat milk from Bulgarian White Dairy Breed, which is produced yogurt and yogurt with supplements of apricot kernels (5, 10 and 15%) and mashed avocado (5%). Enrichment of goat milk with apricot kernels leads to an increase of oleic acids (C-18:1c9), g-linolenic acid and decrease of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA and omega-3 fatty acid. » author=»Ivanova Silviya Atanasova» publisher=»БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА» pubdate=»2016-12-25″ edition=»euroasian-science.ru_25-26.03.2016_3(24)» ebook=»yes» ]

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