The effectiveness of vegetable production is directly related to the researches in the field of fertilization because it is a serious intervention for the soil and its misuse can not only cause serious damage to the soil fertility but also cause environmental problems and worsen quality of the produce. Intensive work is performed to increase the efficiency of mineral fertilization of the plants as well as new forms of fertilizers and methods of their application are searched .
Favorable conditions for development of vegetable crops are created by elaborating of appropriate integrated systems of fertilization including foliar fertilizers which result in increase of crop resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors. Foliar feeding is a necessary supplement in fertilization of vegetable crops for increase of yield, an opportunity to correct fertilization rate of NPK, by reducing the risk of further contamination of the soil and produce .
In recent years, the market for vegetables with high ecological value is increased. The great diversity of fertilizers with organic origin and their wider application enforces performing of studies for their impact on the biological manifestations, productivity and produce quality. Research on vegetable crops in our country are limited [3; 4; 5; 6, 7).
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of organic products on the yield and quality of the produce from pepper mid-early field production in order to reduce the mineral fertilization.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. The experimental work was performed in the period 2009-2011, on highly leached meadow — cinnamon soil in the experimental field of the «Maritza» Vegetable Crops Research Institute — Plovdiv with pepper variety Kurtovska kapia 1. The variants, included in the study for establishment of the effect of organic products on the yield and quality of pepper produce were the following:
Variants of experience: 1. Control – untreated; 2. Mineral fertilization — N18P14K16; 3. Labin — 0.3% — foliar application – threefold; 4. BioOne – 1,65 L/ha — soil twofold; 5. Tecamin – 2 L/ha soil use — in transplanting; 6. Agriful — 40 L/ha — twofold in planting and first hoeing; 7. Humustim – 400 mL/ha — soil application- in planting and foliar application of 2 times: flowering phase — 0.05% and leaf — phase «as walnut-size of the fruit» — 0.05%; 8. Biohumus — once in 200 mL/plant in planting.
The strongly leached meadow cinnamon soil is with relatively light mechanical composition, sandy-loamy, humus content — 2.1% (in Tyurin) mineral nitrogen (NH4-N + NO3-N), determined by distillation — 1,8 mg/100 g soil; movable P2O5 — 15,4 mg/100 g and movable K2O — 16,1 mg/100 g soil (determined by Egner-Rheem) and soil reaction pH /H2O/-6,9- potentiometrically.
In the basic fertilization were applied R14K16 as triple superphosphate and potassium sulphate. The nutrition with ammonium nitrate was made two times: for variant 2 – mineral fertilization: N20. The nutrition was the same for the variants with bio-fertilizes which is a necessary methodical condition to emphasize their effect — 50% less nitrogen fertilizer rate towards the optimal for the crop, grown with mineral fertilization. Plants were treated with organic products as recommended by the company — the manufacturer or importer. Plants were grown from seedlings. The experience was set by the method of long plots in 4 replications with area 9,6 m2.
Characteristics of bio-products: Agriful — organic liquid fertilizer with plant origin. It is composed by vegetable extracts from barley, wheat, corn and molasses from cane; Labin Aminoacidos 24% — Foliar fertilizer based on amino acids, obtained by controlled hydrolysis of natural proteins. Contains 8.2% total nitrogen, 4.6% organic nitrogen protein, 2.0% alpha-amino nitrogen, 3.6% ammonium nitrogen, 60,0% of organic substance; Bio One — Microbiological fertilizer, ecologically pure, liquid product. Provide plant with 15-20 kg active nitrogen, promote absorption of any residual phosphorus and potassium, retains moisture in the soil; Tekamin max -liquid fertilizer with plant origin, extract of algae possessing high concentration of L-amino acids and high content of potassium and boron; Humustim — organic product with high content of humic acids, macro- and micronutrients; Biohumus — is an organic material, obtained as a result of red Californian worms (Lumbricus rubellus u Eisenia foetida) feeding with organic residues.
Indexes of study: Agrochemical analysis soil: Samples were taken yearly, both before set of the experiment, at 0-20 cm depth for determining of the type and quantity of fertilizers for basic fertilization and nutrition and in the end of the vegetationperiod. The analyses were carried out using the following methods: mineral N / NH4+ + NO3—/ — by distillation; movable P2O5 — colorimetrically; movable K2O – by flame photometry; pH/H2O/ — potentiometrically, humus (in Tyurin), total concentration of soluble salts — by electrical conductivity (EC mS / cm); Yield — kg/ha; Quality of the fruits: average fruit weight (g/fruit) — 10 fruits from each repetition were analyzed in mass fruitage. The following indexes were analyzed for each variant : dry matter – by refractometry, total sugars — in Shool-Regenbogen and vitamin «C» — by Tilmans reaction; Mathematical Processing — (8).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The highest yield averagely for the period of investigation was recorded after mineral fertilization — 25900 kg/ha, as the increase towards the control was 28.2% /Fig. 1/. The effect of fertilizes on the yield of pepper in reduced mineral fertilization varies from 8.9% to 22.8% compared to the untreated plants. Greater increase of this index was observed in plants fertilized with Agriful — 24800 kg/ha, followed by fertilization with Tecamin — 24480 kg/ha, as the increase towards the control is respectively 22.8%, 21.2%. The lowest effect on the yield was recorded in Labin, as the increase was with 8.9% compared to the untreated control.
Figure 1. Yield of pepper and average fruit weight — average for the period
The fruit weight is an important biometrical index with economical significance. The applied bio-fertilizes have a lower influence on the pepper fruit weight. The greatest weight was read in plants, grown with mineral fertilization — 98 g. Among the applied bio-products the greatest fruit weight was recorded in use of Agriful and Tecamin, — 96 g and 95 g, respectively towards the control — 90 g. The differences between the treatments are not statistically proven.
The results from two-way analysis of variance showed that the effect of the applied fertilizers on the plant productivity is stronger during the period of the study while the effect of the year is lower /Fig. 2/.
Figure. Variation in pepper yield depending on the fertilization and year
Fertilizes have a positive effect on the vitamin C content (Table. 1). Fertilization with Agriful and Tecamin led results in the increase of this character, as the difference in values is small and unproven 230,04 mg% and 224,65 mg%, respectively. The deviations in the dry matter and total sugar content in the fruit between the variant are insignificant.
Table 1. Biochemical analysis of the pepper fruits, varietes Куртовска капия 1
|№||Variants||Dry matter %||Total sugar %||Vitamin C mg%|
The application of bio-products in reduced mineral fertilization results in increase of the pepper yield from 8.9% /after fertilization with Labin/ to 22.8% /after fertilization with Agriful/compared to the control plants. It was found that the studied fertilizes increase the pepper fruit weight. The differences between the treatments are not statistically proven.
The fertilization with Agriful and Tecamin has a positive effect on the content of vitamin C in pepper. The impact of bio-fertilizes on the dry matter and sugars content in the fruits is insignificant.
Bio-fertilizes, studied in this research are of interest for the practice. They are an alternative to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is a prerequisite for the production of ecologically pure produce.
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- 8. Duncan D, Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics. 1955; 11: 1-42.[schema type=»book» name=»APPLICATION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS TO REDUCING MINERAL FERTILIZATION IN PEPPER» description=»Field experiments for the effect of organic fertilizers: Labin, Bio One, Tecamin, Agriful, Humustim and Biohumus on yield and and quality production of pepper, variety pepper Kurtovska kapia were performed on strongly leached meadow cinnamonic soil at the experimental field of the Maritsa” Vegetable Crops Research Institute during the period 2009-2011. After mineral fertilization the total pepper yield is the highest averagely for the period of study. An increase of the yield in pepper with reduced mineral fertilization is established after application of organic products from 8,9% /after fertilization with Labin /to 22,8%/ after fertilization with Agriful/ towards the control. Established a positive effect of fertilization with fertilizes on the content of vitamin C in the fruit of pepper. The influence of fertilizers on the content of dry matter and sugars in fruit is incidental. Organic fertilizers application results in reduction of the synthetic fertilizers use that is a prerequisite for the production of safety production» author=»Boteva Hriska Manusheva, Dintcheva Tsvetanka Ivanova, Arnoudov Boyan Dimov» publisher=»БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА» pubdate=»2016-12-25″ edition=»euroasian-science.ru_25-26.03.2016_3(24)» ebook=»yes» ]