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ISSN: 2411-6467 (Print)
ISSN: 2413-9335 (Online)
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Название журнала: Евразийский Союз Ученых — публикация научных статей в ежемесячном научном журнале, Выпуск: , Том: , Страницы в выпуске: -
Данные для цитирования: . MODERN DIDACTIC RESOURCES IN MANUAL BUILD AN ALGORITHM IN THE PRACTICAL EDUCATION OF PATHOLOGY // Евразийский Союз Ученых — публикация научных статей в ежемесячном научном журнале. Педагогические науки. ; ():-.

Introduction: The rapid incursion of computers in all areas of life provide to education many possibilities for transmission of information.Internet remove the restrictions of time and space.New technologies take leading positions in the arsenal of didactics. Abundanceof e-training resources reflect both on the attendance of lectures and thepractical lessons in the university [2]. Modern technologies are the basis of innovative methods in the pathology education – e-Autopsy, training CD, lectures ppt, digital pathology, telepathology, distance web-based training, problem-based (problem-oriented) training – PBO(PBL), education through multi head microscopes, interactive education and others [3,5,6].It is a challenge for assistants to take an active position and to identify the degree of inclusion of the new technologies in student’s education.In many medical schools in the world there is a need of a change in the educational programs and training methods [1]. Each of the basic educational system of pathology – traditional (departmental) training, integrated model, interdisciplinary, PBO (PBL), interactive training or mixture of all have its own advantages and disadvantages [8].

The training of general and clinical pathology in Medical University – Plovdiv is done by a traditional system of departmental education.It includes lecture course and lessons with equal workloads. Striving for technological modernization in the training process is supported by a very good facilities and find a positive response among students.Each student has its own workplace and microscope in the classrooms.In every classroom there are DVD-player and TV.In one fully digitalized room the microscopes are equipped with video cameras, whose images are exposed to the monitor.This help the assistant to monitor simultaneously the work of the students and to guide them in finding the reference image.

The increase of integrated medical training plans and the transfer of students through mobile European programs require to analyse and evaluatethe modern training methods in pathology’s education which will lead to formation of a new style of pathology courses [7].

Purpose: To evaluatethe effectiveness of a new type of manual that introduce an algorithm for leading the practical pathology lessons,combine the elements of manual with workbook anduse e-teaching in the accompanying CD.

Materials and methods: Since 2011 our Department of pathology publish  manual of practical lessons of General and Clinical pathology for medical students and its English version (Fig.1). Every practical lesson is organized by a standart algorithm, that is described in a separate chapter.

Figure 1: Manualof practical pathology lessons for medical students.

The structure of the standardized protocol for pathologylesson includes: Specific educational aims; Extracurricular questions for written answers; Brief histological description of microscopic preparations with filling of specific terms; Computer-processed silhouettes of microscopic images (for coloring); Differential diagnostic tables; Clinical and morphological observations /cases/-for written analysis and diagnosis. These elements of the protocol  must be completed before the beginning of the lesson. Students must get acquaint with the theoretical part of the lesson in advance. During the lessons they microscopy and color the histological images.

Each manual is accompanied by a CDwith the following content:1. Instruction of use; 2. Thematic plan; 3. List of museum collection for the practical test; 4. Museum collection – training; 5. Test – museum collection; 6 List of histological specimens for the practical test; 7. Histopathology collection; 9. Clinico-morphological observations; 10. Topics for extracurricular practice; 11. Syllabus for the exam; 12. Regulation of the exam.

CD includes two training programs  — about gross and histological specimens.Every specimen has a detailed description of pathological changes.For a better orientation to each specimen there are added animated designations of the pathological changes (Fig.2).

Figure2: Presentation of pathological organ changes for practical lessons for medical students.

All examination specimens are played individually and in programs in the way to check the student’s knowledge.On a lottery principle the programs show gross and histological images which the students must diagnose by themselves.By next click the student compares his assumption with the correct answer.

Results: The advantages and disadvantages of the perceptional system for practical training is the aim of the surveywhich include 294 anonymous students.Student’s answers are in % of all participants and some of them give more than one answer (Chart1,2,3).

Discussion:Lessons of General and Clinical Pathology, although called «practical» in their traditional form only rationalize and consolidate the theoretical knowledge obtained from lectures and textbooks. The majority of students /59,70%/consider with the specific educational aims of each lesson. We believe that observing the algorithm that is underlined in the aims and tasks of the lessons guarantee the complete coverage of the material and prevent gaps of both students and assistants. Оne thirdof the students /33,70%/ find coloring of histological specimens for useless and unnecessary formality and our aim is to focus their attention to each image (Chart 1). Student’s opinion that the training CD help for their practical training is unanimous. The few who has an opposite opinion are probably those who have not use the CD for their training. The opinions of students that the training CD could replace their work with the training specimens is a similar percentage of students who think it would be better to use a virtual histological slides(Chart 2).So in the future we will combine a visual interactive education with internet-based education[3,9]. Student’s opinion about pathology lessons is predominately positive and they appreciate the benefits of introduction of the new manual of practical lessons and training CD(Chart3). Improving the results from examination sessions also support this position. This is especially demonstrative in the final semester test where the student’s success is over 95%.

Conclusion:The use of computer technologies in students education give big opportunities about illustration of such,,visual’’ discipline like pathology. Proper selection and combination of various educational methods ease memorizing and help the building of clinical thinking in students[4,6]. The symbiosis between theoretical knowledge, macroscopic and microscopic diagnosis, coloring, clinical and morphological analysis and computer animation extends our teaching arsenal and engage students in active work with the new manual. The elements of a combined manual introduce interactivity in the education through discussions. Standardizedprotocol to each practical lesson  build an algorithm  in student’s training  and give methodological guidance of the assistant.After completing the pathology course, students retain their manuals, which will be necessary in future.


  1. Brown JH, Medical schools in crisis., Eval Health Prof. Jun;11[2]:1988, p.147-71
  2. Cardall S, Krupat E, Ulrich M., Live lecture versus video-recorded lecture: are students voting with their feet? Acad Med., Dec;83[12]:2008, p.1174-8
  3. Foster K., Medical education in the digital age: Digital whole slide imaging as an e-learning tool, J Pathol Inform. 1: 2010, p.14
  4. Ivanov Kr., Ignatov V., Kolev N.and all.„Distance learning – challenges for the medical university education in Bulgaria”, 28 Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2006, 28-33
  5. Löhrs, U., „Pathology in so-called Problem Oriented Learning (POL)”, MünchenVerh Dtsch Ges Pathol.; 85: 2001, p.65-71
  6. Marcial, G-R. and all (Eds.), „Perspectives of digital pathology”, IOS Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2012, p.68-73
  7. Marshall R, Cartwright N, Mattick K., „Teaching and learning pathology: a critical review of the English literature.”, Med Educ. 38(3):2004, p.302-13
  8. Pillinger C., “An Overview of Pathology Undergraduate Medical Education”, 2004, p.22
  9. Rashbass, J., Fletcher P.,„Why use the internet to teach pathology?”, J Clin Pathol, 51:2009, 179–182[schema type=»book» name=»MODERN DIDACTIC RESOURCES IN MANUAL BUILD AN ALGORITHM IN THE PRACTICAL EDUCATION OF PATHOLOGY » description=»Introduction of electronic resources and the use of computer technologies in the medical student‘s education give a big possibilities for illustration of the educational subject of pathology.Simulation of morphological images of the diseases through different educational methods help the retention and build the clinical thinking in students.We create a new type of Manual for practical lessons of pathology and training CD by using the modern didactic resources.Symbiosis between them is a productive visual/electronic form of interactive education.This make the educational process of pathology more rational, control the student’s knowledge, verify their writing answers and the most helpful of all – there is a time for discussion on clinic-morphological observations.» author=»BivolarskiIliyaPetrov, KolevaMariyaStoyanova, PeshevZhivko Vladimirov» publisher=»БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА» pubdate=»2017-04-11″ edition=»ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_30.04.2015_04(13)» ebook=»yes» ]
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