Translation is a specific occupation which one has to master. The skill to translate doesn’t come automatically even when a person achieves a certain level of a foreign language knowledge. Development and perfection of translating skills happens on a daily basis during the first five-ten years of professional activity. At a later stage such attains are maintained on the proper level. A translator’s professionalism is in the following: he knows perfectly the major skills and techniques necessary to accomplish his job adequately.
The principle tackle of any translator is his memory. The proper usage of it presupposes the capability to memorize some information in the fullness of time [3, p. 57].
A new foreign word memorizing is the formation of stable connection between “old” image and its new verbal notation. For instance, there is fixed connection between the word “umbrella” and its image in your brain. Your task is to unite the above-mentioned word with its image. When this very perceived word will evoke the image of umbrella, you will certainly understand this word, that is to see in your imagination the thing it denotes. Words only designate visual impressions and their different characteristics. Groups of words depict combinations of visual impressions. You understand sentences with the help of your imagination. If some words fail to rouse visual impressions you can neither understand nor memorize a sentence. You will be able to memorize phrases efficiently, comprehend them and make your own statements providing that you have memorized separate words previously. The reason for conventional long-term training of foreign languages is a person’s inability to memorize large quantity of new words (naturally occurring memorizing – five words on average per day). It takes about two years to accumulate 3600 words.
The notion “memory process” is different from the notion “memorizing process”. The process “memory” fixes connections between signals occurring simultaneously in your brain. The process “memorizing” ensures essential information concentration in the human brain. Memorizing is carried out on the basis of coordinate interaction of some psychic processes: memory, attention, thinking, imagination, sensation [1, p. 30]. Imagination is the procedure of patterns’ modeling in terms of the processes “idea” and “brainwork”.
The main points of memory theory were enunciated by an English doctor David Hartley. As well as many thinkers of the ancient times Hartley considered the process “memory” to be the main property of the nervous system functioning. Under mnemonics which laid the foundation for associative psychology it makes sense to learn memory from the practical point of view only with the help of people who know the memorizing technique [4, p. 102].
Our brain can perceive speech in different ways. If you read a text, this information goes to your brain through eyes. When you conceive speech aurally, the information goes to your brain through ears. Speech can also be delivered from brain variously. You can speak aloud, write something with a pen, or print information. Diverse systems of brain participate in the above-mentioned actions. When memorizing new foreign words it is necessary to form four kinds of connections. The formation of word stock implies the organization of different reflective signals which guarantee either aural understanding of speech or understanding through a text as well as reconstitution with the help of organs of articulation. Fast memorizing of a foreign word in mnemonics is the formation of four reflective ties between:
- a word perceived aurally and a visual image;
- a word which is read and a visual image;
- a visual image and speech reaction (pronunciation);
- a visual image and writing a word (movement of hands and eyes).
The formation of these ties is stipulated by the technique of foreign words memorizing and it is implemented coherently in the process of new information remembering. The bases of involuntary memorizing are natural associations. These are interconnections arisen in the brain during the perception of interrelated visual objects or other signals contiguous in time [2, p. 48]. Connections formed in the brain naturally are used in mnemonics for establishing logical system of prop images. Remember a very well-known flat and secure in your memory the sequence of rooms in it by manifold recalling. Concentrate on room №1. Using the imagination you should go round it clockwise and across paying attention to all objects. Recalling the regular piece of furniture hold it in your imagination and learn it more thoroughly. Emphasize ten objects in one room. They should not repeat. Hold in your memory the consistency of these ten objects remembering this consistency several times. While doing it try to subdue mental uttering of images corresponding to these pieces. The resultant system of prop images is the system of stimulating images with the help of which you will be able to remember words in the future.
Visual thinking is efficiently used in memorizing new foreign words with mnemonics methods. During a long period of time it is necessary to execute some actions with visual images in your imagination. Speed and quality of memorizing closely depend on attention stability. When your attention distracts the processes of memorizing stop [5, p. 95].
What is the best way to train your attention? These are different actions with images in your imagination. The mere idea of visual images is far from being the proper exercise for attention training. In modern literature on psychotraining it is stated that the best result is achieved in case when certain actions are carried out with visual images.
Since mnemonics is entirely based on various actions with visual images, application of memorizing mnemonic techniques trains attention mechanically. The more you train remembering an information the better will be your attention stability and lesser will be fatigability. When a person makes some effort to remember something consciously it means that some information is not remembered by itself. That is, information you remember “has gone beyond” possibilities of our “automatic” memory [1, p. 23]. That is why voluntary memorizing is “switching on” mental processes. Thanks to them you will be able to transform any information in visual images.
The process “memory” can be switched on consciously with the help of mental actions. Try to increase and reduce images in your fancy. This mental action is called “increase-reduction of an image”. Another one is called “rotation of images”. These two actions may occur simultaneously.
The mental action “transfiguration of an image” is in the following: one and the same word can appear due to different visual images. For example, the word “machine”. It can be sewing machine, washer, dish-washer or car. The most significant mental operation for memorizing is “connection of images”. Doing it you switch on the process “memory” voluntarily and you brain fixes interrelation between connected images.
You should follow two main rules when choosing images: images should be far from simple (your brain is bad at remembering geometric things), or narrative ones (it is better not to imagine a picture combining several images). When you memorize verbs you are to remember a certain object which is closely connected with an action. And memorizing adjectives recall some noun which is often used with this very adjective. Adverbs are memorized in the same way as adjectives. But it stands to mention that you should be careful in choosing an image for an adverb, because an adverb can be very much different from an adjective in its meaning.
Virtually all people use the method of frequent repetition instinctively since they believe that manifold “reading” of information is not so efficient as it may seem. Without knowing any mnemonics techniques a person is compelled to “stuff” his memory with information by little portions. Mnemonics allows to “capture” a big volume of information in memory. And if these words are repeated from memory they are fully and quickly secured in the brain.
Repetition is carried out not for memorizing but for keeping information in memory. Before repeating you are to make sure that all necessary information is in your memory in full volume and without any mistakes. The process of checking newly acquired words with the original is called in mnemonics “control remembering” [4, p. 61]. After it you can find mistakes or omission of some information. All mistakes and inaccuracies should be eliminated. After control remembering and errors elimination you can start the repetition of information in order to keep it long in your memory.
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