Nanotechnology development is now recognized as a priority for the economic policies of the leading countries of the world. Diversification of cooperation forms in the field of nanotechnology is a necessity for economic development. It represents a change in the traditional forms of international cooperation and nanomaterials, nanotechnology and nanoservices market reorientation.
In accordance with the basic forms of international economic relations nanotechnology international cooperation is carried out in the following forms:
- International tradeof nanogoods and nanoservices, which is deemed the export of ideasof creatingnanotechnologyand launching final nanoproduct, that is, the initial and finalphases of the processof nanoindustry.
At the present stage of economic development there has been another trend, namely, the rise of export to foreign countries directly to the production phase of nanogoods and nanoservices [1, P. 20].
- International industrial andscientific and technical cooperationinthe field of nanotechnology, which is a set of relationshipsbetween firmsof different countriesin the field ofcooperativeproductionof nanoproducts, nanotechnologyexchange, joint researchand training, is divided intothe following areas:
А) Inter-firm cooperation – a form of labor organization in which a certain number of participants involved together in the same or in different but related working processes. Various forms of cooperation have become the main form of innovation activity in the industrialized countries.
- B) Coproduction,where two or morecompaniesaccording to an agreement jointlymanufacturefinishednanoproducts, specialized inperformingcertain types of work. Coproductioncan includefirms’ cooperationover a broad range – from creating a newnanoproduct,itsmassproduction to the joint industrial development or
- C) Internationalspecialization and cooperationin manufacturing nanoproducts, which meanscountry’s specializationin the productionor provision ofseparatenanogood or nanoservice, that is defined via combination ofvarious national and international
- D) Joint construction of industrial facilities to work in the field of nanotechnology, including the supply and installation of industrial equipment, design, engineering and other work in the field of nanotech development and nanoproduction manufacture.
- E) Contract manufacturing or industrial cooperation, which is the establishment of long-term production linkages between industries, companies and their structural divisions on a contract basis for the creation of certain types of intermediate products intended as essential elements for the manufacture of the final nanoproduct.
- F) Tolling – an agreement to provide a foreign firm with unmanufactured raw materials for processing in the finished product in the country with subsequent removal of a foreign company in accordance with the customs export products procedure outside the country’s territory. Under the agreement, the owner of the raw materials and finished nanogood is a foreign company, but a recycling facility receives a fixed fee for the processing of raw materials .
- G) Outsourcing that is a transfer of certain business processes or functions for the production of nanoproducts to another company. One of the advantages of this form of industrial cooperation is the ability to focus on its core business by entrusting outsourced operational functions and gain a competitive advantage. Also in the case of outsourcing company gains access to the advanced technologies and experienced solutions, which it does not possess, and the ability to use specialized functions to do which the organization used to have no qualified personnel or resources, and the transfer of responsibility for the carrying out the specific functions .
The disadvantage of using this form of international cooperation is a possible leak of information about the use of breakthrough nanotechnology, and inadequate attention to the legal framework of the Russian Federation on the mechanism of outsourcing.
- H) International interacademic Such interaction can be presented as joint educational programs (Masters and Bachelors) in the field of nanotechnology, retraining and advanced training, as part of which should be developing further disciplines: economics of nanoproduction, nanomarketing and nanomanagement and information support in the form of joint articles collection. An additional tool to ensure this form of cooperation is to provide interaction with the academic and industrial sectors of science, including the involvement of foreign scientists and specialists working in the field of nanotechnology, to teaching in Russian universities.
- International flows of capital representthe removal ofpart of the capitalof theprocess of nationalcirculationin one country to beincluded in theprocess of productionin other countries.According to the objectives andcapital utilization there are flows of venture and loan capitals.
- The international monetaryandcredit relations – a set ofmonetary andsettlement andcreditrelationsin the global economy(providing loans to enterprises employed in the field of nanotechnology, contracts forfeiting,leasing andfranchising, project financing).
- Theinternational migration ofthe field of nanotechnology, which is a multi-directionalflows(emigrationandimmigration)labor resourcesacross nationalborders in search ofwork[4, P. 18].
According to the organizational and legal forms the international cooperation forms in the field of nanoindustry are represented as joint ventures, consortia, associations and unions, specialized boards on the coordination of joint activities of enterprises, joint research centers, offices, laboratories, including megascience centers  involved in the field of nanotechnology.
The most perspective forms of international cooperation in the nanotechnology area are: joint scientific and technological research, joint ventures, contract manufacturing agreements and investment consortia. On the world market an oligopoly in selected segments of nanoproducts have started to work, actively carried out purchase of intangible assets, including patents. The trend of establishing partnerships in the field of manufacturing nanomaterials, creating nanobiotechnology, fuel cells, nanocomposites, and so on. Also mergers and acquisitions in the nanoindustry are becoming popular, which are particularly active occured in the field of nanoinstruments and nanocoating.
- Luskinovich, P.N. Nanotechnology of the XXI Century: Analytical Review / P.N. Luskinovich and etc. – Moscow: VNTIZ, 2001. – 20 p.
- Belova, I.A. Tolling as Economic Phenomenon / I.A. Belova // Management in Russia and Abroad. – 2000. – №3. – Electronic Text Data. – Mode of access: https://www.cfin.ru/press/management/2000-3/14.shtml (dated on 07.01.2014)
- Ермошила, Е.Л. Аутсорсинг / Е.Л. Ермошина // Audit-it.ru. – Electronic Text Data – Mode of access: https://www.audit-it.ru/articles/account/assets/a13/42117.html (dated on 10.09.2014)
- International Economic Relations. International Business: Textbook. – Rostov-on-Don : Fenix, 2009. – 576 p.
- Inshakov, О.V. Russia’s International Cooperation in the Field of Nanoindustry: Directions and Forms / О.V. Inshakov, E.I. Inshakova. – Volgograd: VolSU Publishing, 2009. – 28 p.
* The article was prepared within the public task of the Ministry of Education and Science[schema type=»book» name=»DIVERSIFICATION OF RUSSIA’S INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FORMS IN THE FIELD OF NANOTECHNOLOGY*» description=»The article represents the research results of the forms of international cooperation in the nanotechnology sphere in accordance with the basic forms of international economic relations taken into account its specific features.» author=»Avtonomova Oxana» publisher=»БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА» pubdate=»2017-01-22″ edition=»ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_28.11.15_11(20)» ebook=»yes» ]