Analysis of the External Environment
We consider the environment from the point of view of strategic management. It is a system that consists of two elements — is its direct environment and the macro environment.
Macro — environment in which to live and function in the organization. It is absolutely neutral to a single organization, it operates and develops according to its own laws. However, its influence on the strategy of the organization is very large. [5, p.32]
Legal regulation. The study of the legal regulation should not be limited to the study of the content of legislative acts. It is important to pay attention to such aspects of the legal environment, as the effectiveness of the legal system, established traditions in this area and the procedural side of the practical implementation of the legislation.
The political component. This macro element is analyzed to predict such a powerful determinant of how the state. The state and its policies, both internal and external, is the most influencing factor in the strategy of any organization. This influence may either strengthen or destroy already made strategic value to the organization. [5, p.34]
The social component. Its analysis makes it possible to know the attitude of the population to some political or economic, mental and traditional phenomena of life. It is in this analysis are shown values of a society, its structure, demographic and religious component of the standard of living and level of migration, the movement of the labor force, and more. [5, p.39]
Technological component. Technological content analysis enable timely to see the opportunities offered by the development of science and technology, the possibilities that open up for the production of new products, improvements already made and for the acquisition of new production lines.
On the one hand, STP brings great opportunities, and on the other — the risks and threats, as innovations can be created and are mostly in a completely different field than the production of goods and services. Thus, the organization can learn about the innovations and innovations of late.
Through the study of various macro-component, it is important to keep in mind the following two points: 1) First, all macro-components are in a state of strong interference. Changes in one component necessarily lead to the fact that there are changes in the other components of the macro-environment; 2) Secondly, the impact of individual components of the environment on a variety of different organizations, depending on the size of the organization, its industry sector, geographic location, etc. [6, p.24]
In order that the organization can effectively study the state macro-component, a special system of tracking the external environment must be created. This system should carry out as special observations; associated with some special events, as well as carrying out regular observations of the state are important for the organization to external factors.
The study of macro-component must not end with just a statement of fact, the condition of any previously stayed or what state they reside today. It is also necessary to reveal the trends that are characteristic of changes in the state of certain important factors, and try to predict the direction of these factors in order to anticipate what threats can expect organization and what possibilities are open to it in the future.
The immediate surroundings of organization is aimed at analysis of the components of the environment, to which the organization is in direct interaction. It is important to emphasize that the organization can have a significant impact on the character and content of the interaction, thereby it can actively participate in the formation of additional features and to prevent the emergence of threats to its continued existence.
Analysis of customers as a component of the immediate environment organization primarily has the task of drawing up the profile of those who buy the product sold organization. [6, p.57]
Buyer profile may be composed of the following characteristics: geographical location of the customer; demographic characteristics of the buyer; socio-psychological characteristics of the buyer, reflecting its position in society, style of behavior, tastes, habits, etc .; The purchaser of the product.
Studying the customer, the firm also clarifies for yourself how strong his position with respect to it in the course of trade. For example, if the buyer has limited ability in choosing the right seller goods to him that his power to bargain considerably weakened. If on the contrary, the seller has to find a replacement the purchaser by another, which would have fewer opportunities in the choice of the seller. [2, p.72]
The analysis aims to identify suppliers of those aspects in the activities of entities that supply the organization of various raw materials, semi-finished goods, energy and information resources, finance, etc., that affect the overall performance of the organization, the cost and the quality of the manufactured product organization. In the study of suppliers of materials and components in the first place should pay attention to the following characteristics of their activities: the cost of the delivered goods; guarantee the quality of the delivered goods; time schedule of delivery of goods; punctuality and commitment of the conditions hocks or product.
Study of competitors, are those with whom the organization has to compete for resources, which it seeks to obtain from the external environment to ensure its existence, has a special and very important role in the strategic management. This study is aimed at to identify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors and the parties on the basis of its strategy to build a competitive struggle. [2, p.49]
Analysis of the labor market aims to identify its potential in providing the necessary organization to solve its tasks frames. The organization should study the labor market both in terms of the presence in it of personnel required specialty and qualifications, the required level of education required age, sex, etc., and from the point of view of labor costs. [2, p.85]
Analysis of the Internal Environment
The internal environment of the organization is part of the environment in general, it seems to be localized within the organization, on the basis of which acquires a number of specific features that distinguish it from the outside. The internal environment is created by the organization, at the same time, it has the opposite effect on the organization and its development. Let’s consider the elements of the internal environment more:
Footage. This element includes a hierarchical relationship, relationship managers and personnel, techniques and methods, employment conditions, conflict management, and the like;
The process of the organization. This item includes various organizational structures, processes and methods, means of communication, a variety of internal rules of conduct, the legal base of the organization, and the like;
The production process. This item includes procurement processes and production of goods or services, warehousing and transportation, offers a variety of CB organizations, and the like;
Marketing. This item includes all the processes that may be associated with the sale of the finished product on the market — logistics, advertising, pricing, «promotion», warehousing, distribution and the like;
Finance. This item includes all the processes that can be associated with the cash flow of the organization and their movement, the creation and distribution of profits, investing in financial instruments and reinvesting in its own production, attraction of investments from the outside and the like;
Organizational culture. Separately it is necessary to highlight such an important characteristic of the internal environment, such as organizational culture. It is such an important part of her study and create apart. That organizational culture — a solid tradition, good and peaceful relations in the team, coherence, mutual creating the atmosphere that at times can increase both the production potential of the organization, so its market price. [4, p.104]
In summary, it can be stated that the analysis of the environment, as it is conducted in strategic management, aims to identify the threats and opportunities that may arise in the external environment to the organization, as well as strengths and weaknesses, which have organization. To solve this problem and developed certain environmental analysis techniques that are used in strategic management.
Thus, the general conclusion here is this: a good strategic manager should be excellent and far-sighted politician, he should seek common ground of all who later would be to carry out part of the strategic development plan, it must be flexible and adaptable to different situations a person with a strong character and mentality, which leads imperceptibly, without turning his rule in dictatorship.
- Denison, Daniel Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness. New York. John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
- Douglas John, Klein Stuart and Hunt David, The Strategic Managing of Human Resources. John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 2005.
- Drucker P., How to Make People Decisions. Harvard Business Review, July-August 1985.
- Mariotti S; Glackin C; Entrepreneurship: Starting and Operating a Small Business; 2nd edition, 2013[schema type=»book» name=»DESCRIPTION OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON ORGANIZATIONS» description=»The article considers the influence of external and internal environment of the organization and its activities. The author classifies both internal and external environment as well as being an organization considers the management policy, which is directly related to the influence of these factors. In conclusion, the author is of the opinion that the company manager should be excellent and far-sighted politician, he should seek common ground of all who later would be to carry out part of the strategic development plan.» author=»Karina Berdznishvili» publisher=»Басаранович Екатерина» pubdate=»2016-12-11″ edition=»euroasia-science.ru_#29_25.08.2016″ ebook=»yes» ]