The problem of microecology in bowels, appeared during recent years, attracts the great attention not only of doctors in different specialties but specialists in production of food technologies and restaurant business .
During last decade in Ukraine, taking into consideration the increase in a number of chronic diseases and determination of their causal relation to imbalanced nutrition, functional food products that contain prebiotics are considered as the efficient way to maintain good health of organism and to reduce the risk for origin of many diseases.
The state of dynamic equilibrium between a host organism, microorganisms that colonize the bowels and environment is called “eubiosis”, at which human health is at optimal level. If the dynamic equilibrium is infringed, we observe the dysbacteriosis of bowels, at which the functions of all components in human organism, its microflora, as well as mechanisms of their interaction are infringed; it causes to origin of disease.
The dysbacteriosis of bowels is the qualitative and quantitative changes in human normal flora, which give rise to apparent clinical reactions of microorganism, causing to origin of many diseases [2,7].
Production of functional food products using prebiotics provides with improvement in structure of nutrition and public health in Ukraine, allows enlarging and improving the range of products in restaurant business and food industry .
The regular consumption of inulin prebiotic in meals provides with healthy action on human organism:
- The purification of organism from waste products is accelerated as a result from stimulation of intestinal wall ability to contract; relieving effect is improved;
- Inulin provides with antitoxic and protective action. Inulin protects mucous coat of stomach and partially bowels against mechanical irritation by food;
- Inulin is able to avoid or to reduce the effect of toxic substances when they penetrate into stomach;
- Use of diet with addition of inulin ceases developing tumors and reduces the amount of ammonia in the bowels, which higher concentration causes to growth of tumors;
- Inulin is also efficient at treatment of atherosclerosis;
- Inulin improves the hydrocarbon and lipid metabolism and normalizes the level of sugar in blood at patients, who suffer from diabetes mellitus;
- Inulin is able efficiently to improve the total amount of food state in food diet with their use in combination with other meat and vegetative products from cereals, groats, vegetables;
- High content of inulin assists to improvement of metabolic processes;
- Inulin, received from hydrolyzed chicory, is able to create structural functional formations, which have the independent medical function for intestinal motility and its microflora;
- High moisture-coupling and moisture-retaining capacity of inulin provides with stable heteroemulsion or gel form to food products;
- Inulin forms rather structured, very viscous gels, which produce solid jellies during cooling .
The national market offers a great number of concentrates in the form of puree and extracts, which contain prebiotics, as intermediate products for manufacture of food products. However the leading role is set to development of powder-like mixtures, which are made of vegetative raw materials.
Their use in composition of meat products provides with rational processing and maximum use of available resources for full-value protein gives the high quality to products due to organoleptic and functional technological characteristics with preset properties, different special purpose and reduction in cost price of products and selling price. In manufacture of products in restaurant business and food industry the use of power-like mixtures, made of vegetative raw materials, which contain prebiotics, is rather limited .
Thus, the problem on improvement of efficiency in application of vegetative powder-like mixtures, which contain prebiotics, and their use in composition of such meat products as pastes, made from secondary meat raw materials, is of special important at development of new technologies for functional food products.
Taking into consideration the abovementioned, the scientific substantiation and development of technology for intermediate product from topinambur and chicory is the urgent task that allows enlarging the range of products in restaurant business and food industry, improving food and biological value of products, influencing on changes in functional technological indices, providing with high level of safety for these products, preventing from acute, chronic diseases and improving human health.
The introduction of vegetative filler influences on the state of pastes, and quantitative values for its quality indices, among which one of the most important index in technology for manufacture of products in restaurant business and meat-processing industry is functional technological indices.
The purpose of the article is to research processes proceeding in intermediate product from topinambur and chicory. Its moisture-coupling capacity was defined depending on duration of hydration and temperature in order to determine processes proceeding in intermediate product. Moisture-coupling capacity was defined using press forming methods .
The significant role of polysaccharides depends on their properties to form colloid solutions and to perform the functions of substances, which do not significantly influence on changes in organoleptic indices of finished products, in food systems. Thus, from the technological point of view, they are used to improve the functional technological properties that allow providing with necessary indices, namely viscosity, moisture-retaining, moisture-coupling, emulsifying, gel-forming capacity, stability of emulsion, assist to regulation of energy value for product and economical indices.
The object of the research was a sample of intermediate product from topinambur and chicory. The intermediate product is the additional cheap source for biologically active substances. Besides, it forms easy-coupling stable complexes, which improve digestion and organoleptic indices of intermediate products due to the fact that the composition of vegetative raw material contains polysaccharide inulin, cellulose and pectines .
It is known from references  that inulin is dissolved in cold water, in hot water it forms viscous solutions and it starts destroying with increase in temperature of more than (80…90)ºС.
The tubers of topinambur and roots of chicory contain enzymes – inulinases, which split inulin at temperature below (20…25)ºС. Thus, the temperature for swelling of intermediate product from topinambur and chicory shall not be below (20…25)ºС and above (80…90)ºС.
Cellulose and pectins, which are contained in intermediate product from topinambur and chicory, are dissoluble in water and the temperature, pH of environment, available salts do not influence on their dissolubility degree, they can be swollen and retain moisture.
|It was found out that the most moisture-coupling capacity of intermediate product from topinambur and chicory is 3.21 g water (hydromodulus 1:3), which becomes constant after hydration during 1,500 s. High moisture-coupling capacity relates to significant content of polysaccharide inulin, cellulose and pectins, which are capable to absorb a great amount of water, with further their swelling.|
The intermediate product from topinambur and chicory is as a rule swollen during the first 900 s. It was found out that the most capacity of IPTC to couple water is 3.24 g water at temperature of 30°C (hydromodulus 1:3).
Further increase in temperature is impossible as it causes to decrease in moisture-coupling capacity and loss of special component in intermediate product from topinambur and chicory – inulin. Low moisture-coupling capacity is stipulated by the fact that water soluble components are transformed into liquid and polysaccharide inulin is destroyed.
Thus, the optimal parameters for proceeding in intermediate product from topinambur and chicory, i.e. temperature of 30°C that corresponds to 3.21 g water during 1,500 s of hydration (hydromodulus 1:3), were found out.
The perspectives for further researches are to develop new technologies for products using intermediate product from topinambur and chicory, which have the best qualitative indices and functional technological properties, to implement the technology for manufacture of products at establishments in restaurant business and food industry.
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