Abstract. The article presents the results of analysis of the labor market of the Samara region. Results of the research to have identified an imbalance between demand and supply of working professions and its causes. In this article we will consider labor market, supply and demand of working professions in the Samara region.
Keywords: labor market, the demand for working professions, supply of working professions, the factors affecting the demand for working professions.
Modern economic situation in Russia influences the labor markets. Every region has got its peculiarities. The main purpose of our scientific work is to give definition of labor market and study the peculiarities of this market.
Samara region takes 11-12th place among Russian regions in the number of the working population and has a high level of employment – 67,7%, which is higher than in Russia, which is equal to 63,4%. The main purpose in this article is to identify problems in the regional labor market of working professions.
The labor market is one of the most difficult markets which exist and function. There are many definitions of «labor market», three main approaches to the consideration of this concept has been allocated in the course of the analysis (picture 1).
Picture1. Definitions of «labor market»
Demand in the labor market is influenced by the following factors:
- the structure of social production;
- the level of development and the production structure;
- the dominant forms of social production;
- the volume of social production;
- the level of scientific and technological development;
- growth rate and development of the national economy.
Supply in the labor market is influenced by the following factors:
- the average salary;
- the number of population and demographic situation;
- the professional structure of the labor market;
- mobility of the population;
- ethnic, cultural, and psychological characteristics of the population [4, p. 49].
Let’s consider the labor market of the Samara region. How we can see on the picture 2, the population of over 4 years (from 2010 to 2013) has decreased by 7, 4 thousand people or 0, 23 %. But the birth rate has increased by 7,4 % and in 2013 was 39 thousand. The death rate has decreased by 4,7% and in 2013 amounted to 44,8 thousand, but stayed higher than the birth rate.
Picture 2. Demographic situation in the Samara region
Next we can see the composition of the economically active population in the Samara region (picture 3).
Picture 3. Composition of the economically active population
The economically active population has decreased, so in 2013 it amounted to – 1727,7 thousand person. At the same time, the number of employed people has increased in comparison to 2010 on 0,8% and amounted to 1667,7 thousand people, the number of unemployed has decreased on 44,2% and amounted to 60 thousand people. Unemployment rate is 3,43%. The unemployment rate is low in the region, the unemployment rate is 6,3 % in the country. The distribution of employment in the economy by education level (picture 4).
Picture 4. The distribution of employment in the economy by education level
People with higher education is dominated in the Samara region (35%), the second place is vocational education (28.7%). But it is very important that the region has a problem with employment of graduates who do not have work experience [2, p. 58].
Next we can see professions which have very high demand. The results are presented in picture 5.
Picture 5. Demand and supply of working professions
Demand is higher than labor supply, the highest imbalance we can see in areas such as construction; the industry has not enough working such as stonemason, plasterer, painter and concreter. According to the analysis, we see that for every 4 resumes we have 10 vacancies [1, p. 64].
Skilled workers are sorely lacking, while young people seek to obtain higher education. According to a survey conducted by the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center, both legal and managerial professions are considered to be the most prestigious. The economists have the second place and in third place there are medical workers. Only 5% of parents want to see their children as skilled workers.
But the employers in Samara region have special requirements for the applicant’s competence for legal and managerial positions. Due to the State project of the Special Economic Zones PC competence and knowledge of foreign language are in high demand [3, p. 50].
Conclusion. Problem is topical of finding effective methods and development of models. It`s contribute to stabilization and identify perspective directions of development the labor market at the regional level. Regulation of labor market can be achieved growth of socio-economic development of the region through effective using tools.
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