INTRODUCTION An innovative economy is due to stage the preservation and development of the achievements of the previous stages at a higher level. At the same time information and knowledge are the tools and objects of labor for creative thinking. New ideas with great social and economic impact, as a rule, are the result of manifestation of creativity in thinking. In today’s world the economy is largely formed under the influence of global technological shifts, from which including Kazakhstan can not remain on the sidelines. According to Kazakh scientists F.M. Dnishev and F.G. Alzhanova, the challenges of today’s technological structure identified timeliness and relevance of applications in the field of management of Kazakhstan model of open innovation, which are as follows:
— An increase in the scope and intensity of the acceleration of the international exchange of knowledge and technology has led to the concept of «tehnoglobalizm»;
— The role of external factors, technological development of any national economy strengthened;
— An important element of global economic relations is becoming a multi-country transfers (transfer) technology;
— In its most active part — trade in patents and licenses — it is growing in recent years, much faster than the normal turnover of international trade;
— Practice of co-operation spread widely, in which research and development can be accommodated in one country, production — in other sales — in the third, and management company based in the fourth;
— Technological advances, especially in such areas as information and communication technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology, have greatly expanded the possibility of solving problems of economic development, welfare and quality of life, environmental protection;
— Globalization opens up new ways to overcome the global digital divide, more countries get wide channels of access to new technologies and their application;
— The geography of technological development, a group of technology leaders including only industrialized countries, starts to enter a number of developing countries around the world, new centers and network technology development;
— Building global production chains, global migration centers of industrial production and the subsequent movement of these R & D centers determines the development of global innovation and technology sector;
— The main driving force behind these changes are the transnational corporations [1, p. 4].
Open Innovation — this is a new business concept, which requires specific management. The theory of open innovation is an evolutionary step in innovation management, following the post-industrial approach, focused on the internal environment of the companies, which often leads to duplication of existing research, and as a result, waste of resources and lost profits. This approach is called in the literature «closed innovation» [2, p. 17].
The relevance of the chosen research topic is expressed in the definition of the role and importance of governance as a fundamental element of the application of the model of open innovation. Therefore, in order to effectively manage open innovation in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to study the management approach.
HOW OPEN INNOVATION CAN BE IMPLEMENTED IN KAZAKHSTAN REALITIES?
In the conditions of modern trends of development of innovation, the role of efficient management of open innovation is great because:
Firstly, the possibility of changing technological breakthrough scale social forms of life, can really lead to huge changes, both to the inventor, and for society as a whole.
Second, successful innovation often requires the creation of at least a new innovation and open business model, and offers innovative products.
Third, the ability to use in their work the idea of consumers and users. In general, such methods are used in companies of network business. Also, the model will bring together scientists from all over the world.
The essence of the concept is the development of internal management processes of R & D in the direction of strengthening cooperation with foreign companies environment, resulting in the diffusion of technology through joint efforts of universities, national laboratories, start-up companies, suppliers, consumers, industry consortia.
In this regard, an important scientific task is to develop new approaches and methods to ensure the effective development of innovative local companies in accordance with the modern trends of the world market innovation.
Issues related to innovation and management innovation, widely discussed in the works of foreign scientists as R.Kantilon, D.Ricardo, J. Schumpeter, J.B. Say, R.Solou, Dzh.Kendrik, E.Denison, Kuznetsov, A.Bretg, Ya Van Dane Sh.Tatsuno, B.Tviss, G.Mensh, L.E.Mindeli, P.F.Druker .
Growth factors of competitiveness in terms of economic modernization M. Porter, the phenomenon of «combining economic growth» R. Kaplinsky were of great importance for the theory of innovation. The idea of an incentive to innovate in the form of market needs supported by the writings of K. Freeman, J. Clark, L. Suto, K. Oppenlendera.
Theoretical and applied aspects of innovation is widely studied in the works of Russian scientists and economists – Y.P. Aniskin, A.S.Blyahman, L.Vodachek, O.Vodachkova, A.K.Vatolin, S.Yu.Glazev, B.F.Denisov, S.D.Ilenkova, N.D.Kondratev, N.P. Zavlin, A.I.Prigozhin, A.A.Trifilova, D.V.Havin, B.V. Schurov, S.A.Fathutdinov, H.Frimen, A.Hemilton, S.YuLgudin, Y.Yakovets and others.
The topic of open innovation the most deeply researched and widely reflected in the works of the following foreign researchers: G.Chesbrough, V.Vanhaverbeke, O.Gassman, F.Gertsog, A.Krouter, K.Letti, Ya.Saarinen, A.Solter, M.Torkelli, E.Hippel , E.Enkel and others. In recent years open innovation management issues paid attention in his works by Russian scientists M.V.Alekseeva, I.V. Aleshin, K.I.Grasmik, Ya.N.Grik, I.N.Dzhazovskaya, V.F. Efremchenko, K.I. Ladigin, J.A. Mingaleva, E.A. Monastyrnyi, Y.I. Nikonov, I.I. Pety, M.Y.Platonov, S.F.Popov, M.S. Ruby, A.I. Rudskoy, V.V. Spitsin, E.V. Tulugurova, A.A.Trifilova.
In Kazakhstan, the study conducted a paradigm of open innovation in the works of domestic scientists F.M.Dnishev and F.G. Alzhanova.
Despite the significant contribution made by the researchers in the development of innovative management and the theory of open innovation in their works were not put as targets of a comprehensive approach to the innovative development of the company based on open innovation.
Relevance and poor drafting research topics defined purpose and objectives of this work. The aim of the research is the development and support of practical recommendations for the application of the management approach the concept of open innovation in the domestic economy.
In Kazakhstan in recent years it has made quite an active policy to develop and promote innovation. Accumulated as a result of favorable global market conditions and investment financial capital allowed to take measures to strengthen the scientific and technological capacity, which was aimed at increasing science funding, improving the training of scientific and technical personnel, government support for innovation, the formation of innovative and technological infrastructure. However, major advances in the field of innovation and technological development is not observed.
The situation in the sphere of innovation does not allow to count on large-scale innovation. Therefore, without abandoning the attempt to support local innovation, it is important to focus on the development of innovations available in the global market, their adaptation and subsequent modifications. In this case, we can expect the introduction of a fairly large amount of incremental non-absolutely new to the world markets, but allows the movement to strengthen the economy of Kazakhstan in acquiring new comparative competitive advantage. Incremental innovations created with close reference to the technical principles developed in foreign countries, allow countries with economies in transition to expand their economic competence.
To do this, you need to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by the current phase of globalization, which increasingly determines the development of such areas as science, technology and innovation.
In this connection, it seems appropriate in the innovation strategy of Kazakhstan, based on the principles of economic pragmatism and inclusive development, guided by a combination of its own scientific and technological resources and external (foreign) sources of knowledge and technology. In this regard, acceptable use of modern models of innovation within the past few years in the best practices of the world, for example, a model of open innovation.
The appearance of the model of open innovation associated with new developments in innovative processes in the context of increasing globalization: the emergence of global innovation networks; wide cooperation and partnership on the inter-firm level, in research and development; internationalization of research and development, the involvement of foreign partners to implement them.
This model allows to reduce the cost of time and resources for the creation and development of new products, increase their market demand, efficiently combine different sources of knowledge. The model of open innovation preferred strategy of catch-up modernization, according to which the main priority is the modernization and adaptation of already developed and mastered technologies abroad.
This model can cover the main stream of innovations in Kazakhstan, but it should be noted that these innovations will not wear a radical nature, but is a step by step. Despite this, they can be very useful for the development of technological competence of Kazakh enterprises, primarily the commodity sector and medium technology sectors.
The benefits of open innovation model allow us to recommend local companies to adopt this model because in our country there is practically no single major company, able to independently carry out the whole innovation cycle. In areas requiring further development in Kazakhstan, such as:
— Production of cars;
— Health services;
— Manufacture of computers;
— Banking and insurance services;
— Consumer packaged goods;
— Communications systems, transportation infrastructure (a joint project of thoroughfares) it is advisable to use a model of open innovation. This obviously will prevail, at least at first, the type of open innovation, which is built on the integration with external sources.
Kazakhstan has favorable conditions to get involved in this process:
— On the one hand, here there is a corresponding potential, primarily in the form of established infrastructure and research facilities;
— On the other hand, there is a great need for the exploration and use of outer space. These features of the country as a large size of its territory, the rich, not fully explored natural resources, a large length of the borders objective necessitates the use of space resources to address challenges facing the country. Based on its space capabilities and developing it, Kazakhstan could increase the technological level and the knowledge economy, provide a new level of defensive purposes and objectives of international cooperation, to strengthen its position in the world community.
Thus, Kazakhstan has all the prerequisites for the implementation of the model of open innovation in the practice of the companies in all the key functional areas of our control.
Given that integration with external partners determine the competitiveness of companies in the market innovation, a cornerstone in the management of open innovation advisable to designate this industry. This is evidenced by the analysis on the number of businesses with partners in the field of innovation.
Analysis of the socio-economic conditions for the development of open innovation in Kazakhstan led to the conclusion that Kazakhstan has all the prerequisites for the implementation of the model of open innovation in the practice of the companies in all the key functional areas of management as the management of personnel, research and development, intellectual property and finally, competitiveness organizations as a whole.
There is a preponderance of in-country partnerships in the areas of innovation, while important for solving technological problems need to activate the connection with the best in terms of technology partners from abroad, resulting in the greatest transparency in all the functional areas of our control.
To implement the concept of open innovation in the Republic of Kazakhstan we need to improve the system of public administration, namely in all functional areas of companies. Note the relationship of factors hampering the development of Kazakhstan’s innovative companies use to formulate the open innovation principles.
- Dnishev F.M., Alzhanova F.G. The development of innovation and technology in the context of globalization: international experience and Kazakhstan. — Almaty: IE CS MES, 2013. — 62 p.
- Chesbrough, W. Vanhaverbeke, J. West (eds.). Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.OPPORTUNITIES OF OPEN INNOVATION MANAGEMENT IN KAZAKHSTANAt the present stage of innovation world development the most important resource is the intellect of the organization worker.This is due to the globalization of economy and the competition, distribution of information technologies, general integration of labor market, increase in speed of information, reduction of life cycle of innovations. The article deals with the possibility of adapting the concept of open innovation in the Republic of Kazakhstan.Written by: Utepkaliyeva Kansulu Musaevna, Adietova Elmira Mizamgalievna, Tagaibekova Nurgul PernebekovnaPublished by: OPPORTUNITIES OF OPEN INNOVATION MANAGEMENT IN KAZAKHSTANDate Published: 01/08/2017Edition: euroasia-science.ru_29-30.12.2015_12(21)Available in: Ebook