Sustainable development of civilized society cannot be achieved without the support of education, which is becoming global in the 21st century. Education is unique among the major national priorities of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The role of education at the present stage of development of Uzbekistan is defined by problems of its transition to the democratic state ruled by law, market economy, the need to cope with the danger of the country’s lagging behind from the global trends of economic and social development. In today’s world the significance of education being a major factor in forming a new quality of economy and society increases with the increasing influence of human capital. The educational system of Uzbekistan is capable to compete with educational systems of advanced countries. Yet, strong public support is needed for ongoing educational policy, as well as restoration of responsibility and active role of government in this sphere, in-depth and comprehensive modernization of education maintained with allocation of necessary resources and creation of mechanisms for their effective deployment.
The educational system should use a unique opportunity for more appropriate alignment of true-life guiding lines of people. It generates all the problems of the society of adults, and meaningful ideas and values, which are laid in educational standards, serve as the axis around which the system of development of public identity (including the ethnic one) accumulates. That is why the analysis of ethno-cultural aspects of modernization of national systems of education (all levels) should not remain outside the purview of the scientific community .
In conditions of development of democracy, the growth of national consciousness of all peoples, violent manifestations of political and national passions, expanding political participation of people, the role, and importance of ethnic psychology as a science that studies the psychological characteristics of representatives of various ethnic groups is increasing. It is essential to develop ethno-psychology, as well as other sciences – ethno-sociology, ethno-politology, and ethno-pedagogics – that analyze “nationalities” problems facing modern society from many different aspects.
Since there is no consensus in the scientific community on terminology issues, it is very difficult to give a precise definition of ethnic psychology. This is due to the fact that the term “ethnos” remains ambiguous, in addition, most authors prefer to explore the relation of psychological characteristics not with an ethnos, but with the culture which should be clearly understood. But most important is that the term “ethnic psychology” is not generally accepted in the world science . Many professionals prefer and prefer to call themselves researchers of “psychology of peoples”, “psychological anthropology”, “comparative cultural psychology”, ethnoscience , cognitive anthropology etc.
The presence of several terms to refer to ethnic psychology is due to the fact that it is an interdisciplinary branch of knowledge. Many academic disciplines are included as part of its “close and distant relatives”: sociology, linguistics, biology, ecology, etc. As for the “parent disciplines” of ethno-psychology, on the one hand, it is ethnology, and on the other hand psychology. Thus, we can say that ethnic psychology is the science dealing with facts, patterns and mechanisms of mental manifestation of psychological typology, value orientations and behavior of members of this or that ethnic community. It describes and explains the behavior and motives within communities and between ethnoses or ethnic groups living for centuries in one geohistorical space. This science is a discipline related with ethnography, pedagogy, philosophy, history, political science and other sciences engaged in the study of human social and inner nature.
The Soviet science in the Soviet period was characterized by a clear lag in the development of ethno-psychological knowledge. Studies have not been conducted practically, but according to the authors’ ‘belonging’ to a certain science, ethnic psychology was seen as a sub-discipline of ethnography as an area of knowledge at the inter-disciplinarity between psychology and ethnography, pertaining closer to either ethnography or to psychology as a branch of psychology.
As a result of dissociation of scholars by the end of the 19th century, two disciplines of ethnic psychology had been formed: ethnological one, which today is often called psychological anthropology, and psychological one for indication of which they use the term cross-cultural (or comparative cultural) psychology . Dealing with the same problems, ethnologists, anthropologists and psychologists approach them with different conceptual schemes. Their main difference lies in the fact that anthropological ethno-psychology was formed on the basis of interaction between cultural anthropology with various psychological theories (reformed psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, humanistic psychology and symbolic interactionism by J.G. Mead), while cross-cultural psychology emerged on the basis of social psychology. Anthropological ethno-psychology appeared in the 1920s, cross-cultural ethno-psychology in the 1960s-70s. .
Differences in the two research approaches can be comprehended by using the concept of emic and etic. The subject matter of psychological anthropology resting on the emic approach is to study how an individual acts, thinks, feels, in this cultural environment. This does not mean at all that cultures are not compared with each other, but comparisons are made only after their thorough study usually carried out in the format of field work research. Currently, the main achievements in ethnic psychology are associated with this approach. However, it also has serious drawbacks, as there is constant risk that the researcher’s own culture may unconsciously turn to his standard of comparison.
The subject of cross-cultural psychology relied on the etic-approach is the study of similarities and differences in psychological variables in different cultures and ethnic communities. Although in this case the “objective” methods (psychological tests, standardized interviews, content analysis of the content of the products of culture — myths, fairy tales, newspaper articles) are used, which are considered free from the influence of culture, the researchers are faced with great difficulties when they try to avoid outrage subjective errors. Many anthropologists have extremely negative attitude to comparative cultural studies arguing that it is impossible to find adequate indicators to compare, because each culture represents a unique and closed world. Moreover, psychologists are often not satisfied with the results of comparative cultural studies already carried out . A H. Triandis generally believes that in the majority of comparative cultural studies we are dealing with a pseudo-etic approach. Their authors cannot get rid of their cultural patterns of thought and their constructed categories are not free from its impact .
Thus, given the limitations of these approaches, you should use them both. Such a combined study requires joint efforts of ethnologists, psychologists, scientists engaged in psychological anthropology and cross-cultural psychology, and, consequently, the creation of an interdisciplinary ethnic psychology. In today’s world there has been shown a rapprochement or closing-in movement of positions of anthropologists and psychologists. Unfortunately, the convergence of anthropologists and psychologists of Uzbekistan leaves much to be desired. Consequently, we can say that so far we have not ethno-psychology as an integrated whole, although the West sees the approach march of psychological anthropology and cross-cultural psychology.
Ethno-psychology holds an important place being an integral part of higher (professional) education, as it introduces students into the theoretical and empirical foundations of the said science, gives an idea of the cultural conditioning of the mind and human behavior, the formation of personality in culture and social psychology, intercultural communication and interaction.
As a subject, ethno-psychology is taught in Uzbekistan both among psychologists and among ethnologists. For the development of the discipline in question, students should know at least such sciences as ethnography, ethnology, psychology, sociology, cultural and psychological anthropology, ethnographic research methods, mathematical statistics, and experimental psychology. But in practice, every student learns and develops only those sciences which impose upon him: psychological sciences are more prevalent among psychologists, with ethnological sciences being almost absent, except for cultural anthropology, which, though having much similarities with ethnology, but is a different discipline; and naturally, ethnological sciences are more prevalent among ethnologists. But it should be noted that the ethnologists are in better conditions, since psychology is taught to ethnologists, what cannot be said of ethnology taught for psychologists. Nevertheless, the above example does not improve the situation, as the curriculum includes very few lecture hours on psychology and experimental psychology is not taught at all. Considering the interdisciplinary nature of ethno-psychology, it is essential that the researcher, who deals with them, knew and used the methodology and techniques of both sciences, i.e. the methods of ethnographic research, which represent the basis for ethnology and anthropology, and experimental psychology, on which psychology is relied. Recently, ethnology has made some progress in this respect: ethnic psychology has become the main subject (what is very important for a young Chair of “Ethnology”). This means that the number of lecture hours in university program increased and experimental psychology was included as a compulsory subject in curriculum.
It should be noted that the study of the characteristics of ethnoses is necessary to analyze their activities, educational work with them, as well as to improve their operations and development, as well as for the organization of civilized relations between nations. Research should help to harmoniously combine common interests of the citizens with the interests of each nation.
The common problem of humankind, the problem of formation of the teacher’s personality to meet the criteria of the 21st century, is of particular relevance. Further development of research on ethnic psychology must be closely linked to the development of the problems of ethno-psychological training as future teachers. In addressing this issue is concerned, above all, civil society, multi-ethnic young generations.
In ethno-psychology, there is not established the existence of any specific features or properties that can permit you to speak about the advantages or superiority of some nations compared with others. It contributes to nationalist criticism and racist theories. The range of problems the ethnic psychologist faces, and the choice of methods to resolve them is truly boundless. But the main principle, apparently, should be a profound and impartial study of peculiar characteristics of ethnic groups and socio-psychological mechanisms of inter-ethnic cooperation to find ways for more adequate understanding of other peoples and communicating with them in the spirit of tolerance and mutual respect.
The problems of interethnic relations had long been out of the field of attention of specialists, and the modern ethno-psychological knowledge does not meet the real state of interethnic communication. A characteristic feature of the modern era is to further strengthen inter-ethnic contacts, cross-cultural interaction and therefore the problem of optimization of ethnic relations is becoming actual. A practical solution to this problem involves attitude development and building non-responsiveness, ethnic tolerance to the cultures of all ethnic groups.
The development of ethno-psychology is required, as ethno-psychological disciplines are designed to find out where to look for reasons for frequent instances of misunderstanding which arise during the contacts between representatives of different nations; whether there are some mental peculiar features specified by culture that make members of one nation ignore, disdain or discriminate against members of another nation; whether there are psychological phenomena that promote the growth of ethnic tensions and ethnic conflicts.
Ethno-psychological development works, especially those concerning its social and psychological aspects, now are of great importance for international education. Ethno-psychology focuses its special attention on the study of the psychological reasons of ethnic conflicts, finding effective ways to resolve them, as well as identifying the sources of growth of national consciousness, its development in different social and national environs. Research in the field of ethnic psychology should help harmoniously combine common interests of the citizens with the interests of each nation. This is a humanistic orientation and application of ethnic psychology.
If we bear in mind the future of ethnic psychology, its specificity can be defined as the study of systematic relationships between psychological and cultural variables when comparing ethnic groups. Ethno-psychology holds a prominent place among different sciences, as it provides introduction into the theoretical and empirical fundamentals of science, gives the idea of cultural conditioning of the mind and human behavior, formation of a personality in culture and social psychology of intercultural communication and interaction.
It is true, that for a long time, i.e. after gaining independence, Uzbekistan has not seen conflicts in one of the most complex areas of human existence – inter-ethnic conflicts, settlement of which presents great difficulties, what is now reflected in the economic, political, cultural, and other spheres of society. Unlike other independent states of the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan has no problem in inter-ethnic and inter-confessional relations, for instance, the case of Russia, Ukraine, Baltic States, and Caucasus .
The state of international relations requires the study of ethnic stereotypes, because they provide fertile ground for manipulation of mass consciousness, to develop negative attitudes towards members of other ethnic groups. Increased knowledge of the peculiarities of ethnic stereotyping is important in view of strengthening cooperation among different ethnic groups in in present-day conditions of life. However, functioning of stereotypes on two levels of relations – intergroup and interpersonal – significantly complicates the problem solving of objective and subjective determinants.
Ethnic identity becomes a significant system-forming factor of an ethnos. The dynamism of socio-political life requires immediate skill formation of specialists, professionally engaged in the study of national culture and personal characteristics of their representatives.
Only by identifying the psychological characteristics of the interacting ethnoses, which may interfere with the establishment of relations between them, a specialist-practician may accomplish his ultimate goal – to offer psychological methods to settle them.
Nationalities policy in the country can and should be based on new approaches to organizing of complex ethno-psychological research ethno-sociological investigations of objective processes in the development of nations and national relations, the use of world experience in dealing with the issue of inter-ethnic relations, drawing up specific science-based recommendations for policymakers, high-ranking and top management officials.
The correct strategy and tactics in the conduct of such studies and formulating appropriate recommendations to the practice of settlement of international conflicts and related educational work can be constructed on the basis of clear methodological and theoretical materials, which are the result of study of all the socio-psychological phenomena manifested in international relations.
Introduction of ethnological and ethno-psychological knowledge into the system of general and higher education and realization of their potential may contribute to the development of targeting to formation of ethnic identity and modern tolerance of ethno-cultural consciousness among the young people, it also can exert impact on development of so important for Uzbekistan the culture of polyethnic and inter-confessional relations, and finally, it may be helpful in development of a general strategic policy of the state aimed at meeting the in-depth cultural needs of all ethnic groups residing in Uzbekistan.
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- Triandis H.C. Culture and social behavior. – N.Y. : McGraw Hill Custom Publishing, 2004 – 330 p.[schema type=»book» name=»THE ROLE OF ETHNO-PSYCHOLOGY IN IMPROVING EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN UZBEKISTAN» description=»Ethnic psychology is the science dealing with facts, patterns and mechanisms of mental manifestation of psychological typology, value orientations and behavior of members of this or that ethnic community. There is disclosed in the article consistence of ethno-psychology as an important part of highest humanitarian education of the Republic of Uzbekistan. By the author’s, mind injection into the curricula of high education and general educational institutions the ethnological and ethno-psychological knowledge will stipulate shaping among young people ethnical identity modern culture and tolerant confession.» author=»Rasulova Ziyodakhon Abduboriyevna» publisher=»Басаранович Екатерина» pubdate=»2016-12-06″ edition=»euroasia-science_30_22.09.2016″ ebook=»yes» ]