During the last decades in pedagogical science various variants of an optimal model of education and training to solve the problems of the younger generation are put forward and the experience in primary education by the example of parochial grammar and Sunday schools in the Crimea in the second half of XIX — early XX century is of particular interest in the context of updating the modern educational system. In this regard, the research has scientific, educational and practical interest.
Problems of male and female education in the Taurian province in the second half of XIX — early XX century are considered by N. Konstantinov, E. Govorov, T. Demyanenko, T. Shushara, L. Moiseenkova, L. Marshall, I. Prudchenko, L . Vovk, T Sedova, N. Kolyada, L. Redkina and others. However primary education in the Crimea province during the second half of XIX — early XX century is studied insufficiently and it has the scientific, humanities, cultural and educational value in reforming the modern system of the Crimean education.
In the second half of the nineteenth century educational activity was actively developing in the Tavrida province. It was closely connected with the opening of the Tavrida and Simferopol diocese in the south of the Russian Empire.
The petition for foundation of a new independent Tavrida diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church from the Crimean citizens supported by the Governor General of New Russia Count Alexander Grigorievich Stroganov was signed by Alexander II on the 16/29-th of November 1859 [1, c. 26]. The hierarch’s chair was established in Simferopol. Tavrida and Simferopol diocese was given an annual amount of 14,800 rubles [2, c. 165] for the maintenance of the hierarch, the hierarch’s house, the cathedral and the consistory of staff second-class western dioceses [3, c. 18].
The complicated environment in which Tavrida and Simferopol diocese was founded, namely multinational variety of confessions developed by sectarianism, adversely affecting the Orthodox Christians largely identify its main activities, which were:
1) educative and educational;
4) social and a charitable;
5) restoration and construction;
7) church and archaeological;
Until 1859 the Crimea’s Orthodox Theological schools did not exist and the creation of Tavrida and Simferopol diocese promoted the organization of primary education in the form of folk schools and parochial schools operating in most Orthodox parishes and secondary education in the form of eparchial female and male schools and seminaries.
Since 1864 primary religious schools (official name — primary folk schools) of spiritual department include:
— parish schools, opened by the Orthodox clergy in the cities, towns, suburbs and villages, at the expense of the treasury funds if it was possible. Local communities and individuals also donated money to parochial school developing;
— Sunday Schools;
— evening classes for adults in the churches.
In order to help in the activities of religious schools parish trusteeships were created. Thus to assist in ecclesiastical schools activities Peter and Paul parish trusteeship was created in Simferopol in 1867. It opened the male and female parish schools in two church buildings in January 8, 1868. The male and female parish schools were kept in money of:
- a) trusteeship (1800 roubles per year);
- b) the municipal duma (1800 roubles per year);
- c) the district zemstvo (300 rub. per year).
The Peter and Paul trusteeship provided pupils with manuals, textbooks, various books, subscription to the magazine “Detskoye Chteniye”. It also purchased classroom furniture, school supplies, stationery [4, c. 396-397] and clothes to pupils singing in the choir and others.
Each member of the trusteeship made annual cash contribution. Donations for maintaining parish schools come from the parishes and other people.
In 1890 there were 36 pupils at the male parish school and 53 pupils at the female one. On the first of September 1886 a grammar school for 21 boys and 18 girls attached to Peter and Paul church was opened in.
Children of different nationalities were trained in folk schools. The national and religious diversification of pupils can be examined by the example of Feodosia district:
— the first parish school opened on the fifteenth of April 1811 was considered a lower unit of district school till 1868 and since October 1868 it became the parish. In 1883 there were 95 pupils: 76 Orthodox Christians, 3 Armenians, 3 Catholics, 4 Jews, 11 Karaites, 1 Tatar.
— the second parish school was opened on the second of September 1878. There were only 50 pupils: 48 Orthodox Christians, 1 Armenians, 1 Catholics.
The number of grammar school in the parishes of the Crimea in 1895-1896 academic year is given in the following table [5, c. 231]:
The number of grammar school in the parishes of the Crimea
in 1895-1896 academic year
|Crimean parishes||Quantity required school||Crimean parishes||Quantity required school|
|Yevpatoria parish||4||Peter and Paul parish||2|
|Biy-Orlyuksk parish||5||Peter and Paul parish, south of Sevastopol, Sevastopol borough.||4|
|Saky parish||1||Preobrazhensk parish||1|
|1||Karasubazar and Nikolaev parish||2|
|Soborny parish||1||Zuysky parish||1|
|Greek parish||1||Baltochokraksk parish (Simferopol district)||2|
|Bratsk parish||1||Partenit (Yalta district)||1|
|Yenikalsk parish (Kerch borough)||1||Vladimir and Vasilevsky parish, village. Deire- Salyn||1|
|2||Ekaterina parish (Feodosia district)||1|
Thus Table 1 shows us the parishes where elementary grammar schools giving primary education to population of the multinational poly confessional Crimean peninsula were opened.
Sunday schools established by both the government, urban, rural societies and individuals to give the education to craftsmen and working people of both sexes who were denied the opportunity to attend classes every day.
In 1879 a Sunday school for girls attached to Peter and Paul church was opened. It received educational allowance of 150 rubles from Simferopol charitable society and by the first of January 1889 there were 110 schoolgirls [6, c. 93-98]. On the twenty-ninth of October 1895 a Sunday school for the girls of all ages was opened on the initiative of Kerch women’s Charitable Society in Kerch. Girls were examined to identify if they were illiterate, poorly educated and literate [7, c. 1–28].
Classes in Sunday schools were held on Sundays from 12.00 till 16.00 on the following subjects:
- a) Reading and Writing;
- b) Law of God;
- c) Arithmetic (or Arithmetics);
- d) Reading or Singing.
The “ABC” byTolstoy, the “ABC” byBaranova part 2, “Native Word” by K. Ushinsky part 2, and other text-books were used to train schoolgirls.
In 1881according to statistics data the official number of folk schools amounted to 737, but A.N. Dyakov stated that in reality there were much more of them in Tavrida gubernia (province) [8, c. 4].
According to the resolution of the Pedagogical Council of the seminary Sunday school attached to Tavrida Theological Seminary was opened on the fifteenth of January 1880. As for the first lesson it was failed on the second of February as none of six 6 pupils came. The first lesson was only held on the sixteenth of February. Sunday school was attended by:
а) ten pupils of the preparatory class of the spiritual school;
б) six pupils of Peter and Paul parish school;
в) two people who did not attend a folk school and could not read came to the seminary almost every day in the afternoon.
On weekdays two children who have poor knowledge were trained on a voluntary basis. The students of the fifth form voluntarily taught pupils Literacy in turn in the afternoon. They had all textbooks needed to teach lessons at Sunday school which was always opened and closed by singing certain prayers. The teacher of the seminary strictly watched the lessons given by the students of Tavrida Theological Seminary meet modern pedagogy requirements. He also controlled thorough preparation of the seminary students for their classes and if necessary, gave them pedagogical lectures on teaching [9, л. 15, 19].
Church parochial schools attached to the churches and monasteries in the Crimea were opened due to permission of the Diocesan Tavrida school boards. The children were admitted at these schools at age of eight. In one-class and two-class church parish schools they were taught the following subjects:
- The one-class parochial schools: Russian; Calligraphy, Arithmetic (or Arithmetics), God’s Law, Church Slavonic Reading and Writing, Church Singing; and Needlework (for girls).
- The two-class parochial schools the following subjects were added: Church and National History, Geography, Drawing and Painting where it was possible.
The training course in one-class parochial schools lasted three years, and in two-class ones it lasted for five years.
During the 1895-1896 academic year district units supplied almost all church parish schools and grammar schools of the Tavrida Diocese with textbooks in the amount required:
- Yevpatoria district ‒ 610 textbooks for 16 parochial schools;
- Kerch district ‒ 204 textbooks for 9 parochial schools;
- Perekop district ‒ 420 textbooks for 9 parochial schools;
- Simferopol district ‒ 568 textbooks for 20 parochial schools;
- Yalta district ‒ 268 textbooks for 7 parochial schools;
- Theodosia district ‒ 306 textbooks for 13 parochial schools [10, c. 12].
It is worth saying that model parish schools attached to the Eparchial Female School and Tavrida Theological Seminary were opened in Simferopol.
A model church parochial school attached to eparchial female school was established on donated money of the hereditary honorary citizen P.N. Uvarov on the seventh of January 1887 in a special building. Seventy girls attend that church parochial school. The model church parochial school received an allowance from Simferopol Alexander Nevsky fraternity in the amount 500 rubles and benefits from the local authority in the amount of 200 rubles [11, c. 97]. One of the main objectives of model parochial school was to prepare highly qualified teachers for primary schools. Pupils of the sixth form attended lessons at the model parochial school with a teacher of didactics to watch model lessons of their teacher or the trial lessons of their classmates. Each pupil during the academic year had to give at least two lessons at the model school [12, c. 240-241].
On the twenty- ninth of September 1885 a model two-class church parochial school was opened on P. N. Uvarov’s donated money. The model church parochial school attached to Tavrida Theological Seminary, was located in spacious stone building. P. N. Uvarov contributed 300 rubles for the school maintenance annually. He also bequeathed it his untouchable capital in the amount of 5,000 rubles [13, л. 28]. According to the note to §120 charter Theological Seminary, the rector Vasily Znamensky headed the seminary. He supervised educative and training process. The teacher of Didactic at the seminary Vladimir Sokolov was in charge of direct management and superintendence of the church parochial school that was the base of students’ teaching practice [14, с. 97].
Since the twenty-sixth of November 1888 the students of the Crimean diocesan educational establishments after final exams successfully passed began to receive certificates giving the right to work as a teacher at one class parochial school. It became an important event in the system of primary education in Tavrida and Simferopol diocese.
In 1897 in the Crimean Russian Orthodox schools Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Bulgarians and Greeks were trained in the Russian language, and the Church Slavonic language was a compulsory subject to be studied. Law of God was taught by priests free of charge, as a rule. Many priests taught that subject in two or three schools.
Thus, the activities of the Orthodox Church in the Crimean diocese in the second half of XIX — early XX century in the field of spiritual education by the example of primary folk schools had their own characteristics, which allowed to achieve high results in educational and spiritual and moral activity.
The system of primary education developed in the Tavrida district at that time, included parochial and rural schools, urban schools, grammar schools, Sunday schools, elementary folk schools (one-class, two-class rural and urban ones), higher primary school. Tavrida and Simferopol diocese promoted the organization of primary education in the form of folk schools and parochial schools, which were opened in large quantities on the territory of the southern lands in the newly created diocese. Peter and Paul trusteeship activities made a valuable contribution to public education. In all districts of the Crimean peninsula the representatives of different nationalities were trained in national schools. Parish clergy in every possible way took care of the material and spiritual support for the folk schools. At model parochial schools parish clergy also carried out training highly qualified teachers for primary schools. There were opened hundreds of Sunday schools, giving pupils an opportunity to have their education. The system of primary education is relevant nowadays. At present it became the subject of close attention to study modern educational problems and to develop an optimal model of training and education aimed to solve the problems of today’s younger generation.
List of Literature:
- Учреждение Таврической Епархии и первое ее десятилетие // Таврические Епархиальные Ведомости. —1869—№1.– C. 26.
- Гермоген, епископ Псковский и Порховский, бывший Таврический и Симферопольский (Добронравин К.П) Таврическая епархия / Гермоген, епископ Псковский и Порховский, бывший Таврический и Симферопольский (Добронравин К.П) – Псков. Типография Губернского Правления. 1887. – 520 с.
- Катунин Ю.A. Из истории христианства в Крыму: Таврическая епархия (вторая половина XIX-начало XX века). / Ю.A Катунин– Симферополь: Таврия, 1995. – 101 с.
- Отчет симферопольского приходского Петропавловского попечительства, с 1 сентября 1872 по 1 сентября 1873 года. // Таврические Епархиальные Ведомости. —1874—№13. – С. 394-401.
- Отчёт о церковно-приходских школах и школах грамоты Таврической епархии за 1895–1896 учебный год. – Симферополь: Тавр. губ. Тип., 1897. –231 с.
- Маркевич А. Мужская гимназия в Симферополе./ сообщ. A. И.Маркевича // Третья учебная экскурсия Симферопольской мужской гимназии. – Симферополь, 1890. – 254с.
- Высочайше утверждённые Положения о церковных школах ведомства православного исповедания и об управлении школами церковно-приходскими и грамоты ведомства Православного Исповедания. – СПб.: Издание Училищного Совета при Святейшем Синоде, 1902. C. 1–28.
- Дьяконов А.Н. Общий очерк состояния народных училищ Таврической губернии за 1880 г. / А.Н. Дьяконов. – Бердянск: изд. тип. Килиус и К°, 1881. 149 с.
- Преподаватель педагогики Петр Созондыев. Воскресная Школа. Дело педагогического собрания 1882-1883 учебный год 5дня. Журнал Педагогического собрания Правления Таврической духовной Семинарии // ЦГА АРК. Ф. 113., ОП. 1. Д. Л. 15, 19.
- Краткий обзор положения начального народного образования в Таврической губернии за 1904 год. – Симферополь: Тип. Губернского земства, 1905. – 178c.
- Маркевич А. Мужская гимназия в Симферополе./ сообщ. A. И. Маркевича // Третья учебная экскурсия Симферопольской мужской гимназии. – Симферополь, 1890. С. 93-98.
- Отчет о состоянии церковно- приходской женской школы при ТЕЖУ за 1896-1897 учебный год // Таврические епархиальные ведомости. – 1898. – № –237-241с.
- Отчет по образцовой при Таврической Духовной Семинарии Церковно-приходской школы за 1903-1904 уч. год. // ЦГА АРК. Ф. 113. ОП. 1. Д. 270 Л. 28.
- Маркевич А. И. Краткий очерк развития учебных заведений в г. Симферополе / сообщ. A. И. Маркевича // Третья учебная экскурсия Симферопольской мужской гимназии. – Симферополь. С. 95-98.[schema type=»book» name=»РRIMARY ЕDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE CRIMEA IN THE SECOND HALF OF XIX EARLY XX CENTURY UNDER THE AEGIS OF ORTHODOX CHURCH» description=»The article discusses primary education in the Crimea under the aegis of Orthodox Church in the second half of XIX — early XX century by the example of parochial schools, grammar school and Sunday activities and the Peter and Paul trusteeship in public education. It is caused by the necessity to solve today’s educational problems which require a thorough analysis of historical experience to improve the efficiency of the state policy in the field of education taking into account the spiritual needs and interests of the population.» author=»Shkarlat Lidia Petrovna» publisher=»БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА» pubdate=»2017-01-31″ edition=»ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_31.10.15_10(19)» ebook=»yes» ]