On the initiative of the President of our republic of Uzbekistan great attention is paid to the improvement and development of learning and teaching English. Considerable changes are happening in the educational system. Our republic needs qualified professionals in different spheres of social and economic life. According to these changes we feel a great responsibility of preparing these professionals who will contribute to the development of our country. For this reason we-teachers should have increase the knowledge in teaching ESP, especially, using media in teaching ESP. In formal education in the classroom, media used properly can greatly increase learning. There no rules that state exactly what medium to use in any given situation. A unit on the water cycle could be taught with a filmstrip, chart, flannel board presentation, simple chalkboard drawing, and flip chart. What is chosen will depend largely upon the objectives of the instruction and the media available; however, characteristics of the various media and instructor preferences will influence selection. Following are suggestions for use in several subject-matter areas.
Science: The world is an interesting place for the child; he is continually asking the question “why”. This curiosity about the world opens a natural avenue for introducing the child to science and scientific study. Through the use of media, many elements of his environment can be brought into the classroom for the child’s study of science in meaningful activities. All around are things to collect-plants (seeds, blossoms, roots, stems); soil varieties (sand, gravel, clay, loam); rocks, minerals, fossils, shells, bones; insects, feathers, skins. Such collections are basic to exhibits and displays. Students will become involved when they contribute individually to the collections. Group involvement can be accomplished through class field trips to collect items. Students will learn firsthand the source of collectable items and gain knowledge about the natural habitat of insects, seeds, etc. Writing about their collecting experience integrates science and language arts activities. Diagrams are useful for teaching cycling concepts-the water cycle; the life stages of an insect; the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle. Cross-sectional drawings can show what the inside of things look like the organs of a typical flower; a slice of skin; the working parts of an engine. A model of the solar system can show relative sizes of the plane t and the sun and their distances from the sun and from each other. The sun and the planets can be made from clay or paper. Wire clothes hangers can be cut, straightened, and attached to a base. Math skills can be integrated with science skills for determining the relative sizes of the sun and planets suspended from the ceiling may be more helpful than a model. Dramatizations or puppet shows can depict the life of some of the great scientists such as Abu Reyhan Beruniy. Also, the dramatization can stimulate a radio broadcast. Have students write the dramatization or puppet show to integrate science experiences with language.
Social Studies: Dramatizations can stimulate the action of local governments such as the village council. Let students role play various governmental officials, as the town mayor, to give more meaning to the duties and responsibilities of these officials. Tape-recorded interviews or discussions with national or world leaders can bring immediacy to a current event that might be lost in a three-day-old newspaper report. Such interviews can be taped directly from a radio program. Collections aren’t limited to science. Postage stamps of most nations depict past historical or current events. Flags, coins, articles of clothing, cultural artifacts, even letterheads that feature governmental seals or symbols can be used for analysis and interpretation.
Recorded interviews or discussions with national or world leaders can bring immediacy to a current event that might be lost in a three-day-old newspaper report. Such interviews can be taped directly from a radio program. Charts can show the method used by governments to collect and disburse taxes. How tax money is spent can be shown with a pie graph. Charts can easily be made to depict the various levels of government-federal, municipal, or states, provinces or regions-or to show steps through which a bill passes to become a law. The latter lends itself to dramatization and role playing by students. Geographical concepts can be made more concrete by models. A field trip to village markets or shops selling foreign wares is a good “opener” for the study of trade or the export-import business. An export-import bulletin board display could be prepared as a summary of the field trip experience. Or, to tie in with mathematics, students could prepare graphs comparing the monetary values of exports and imports relative to their country’s economy. The graphs could also be used in oral and written reports about trade-an opportunity to integrate meaningful subject matter with the development of skills in oral and written expression. (1 – p. 46)
Mathematics: All mathematical concepts are abstractions. To understand these abstractions, children need various kinds of concrete experiences. Media are useful not only to establish a concrete base for mathematical thinking, but also to create interest in the practicality of mathematics. Real objects such as stones, beads, and coins can be used for counting. They give a concrete base for understanding the one-to-one relationship and for developing concepts of “more than”, “less than”, and “equal to”. Some objects such as fruits and vegetables can be divided to show major fractional parts like halves and fourths. Sticks of varying lengths can be used for measuring and for developing concepts of “longer than” or “shorter than”. Objects cut to proper length or selected for their proper weight bring concreteness to systems of measures and weights, such as the metric system. Real objects also provide tactile as well as visual experiences. There are numerous opportunities for including measuring experiences in science and social studies activities. When integrated with these activities, the practicality of mathematics can be made more evident to the student. Paper-made objects (calendars, play clocks, play money) can be made by children. Then, each will have his own for seat work on problems involving time or money exchange concepts. A large paper clock with movable hands can be hung on the classroom wall. Throughout the day, the hands can be placed to indicate the time when certain activities will take place-time for reading, recess, lunch. Pupils can participate by being given the responsibility for setting the hands to show at what time the next activity will take place. A walking trip through the village or are surrounding the school to observe geometric shapes in real life can be used as an introduction to geometric forms. The trip can be supplemented by a bulletin board display or pictures of the things observed-buildings, bridges, bicycles. Test the children’s recognition of forms by having them label the pictures with the names of the forms illustrated in the pictures. Children can also be asked to look for geometric forms in their classroom. String models of geometric forms such as cones and pyramids can be constructed. By projecting a thin beam of light across the model at various angles, sections of these forms can be shown. A projector isn’t needed. A slit cut in a piece of cardboard covering a window where the sun comes through can be the source of light. Student-built models to scale or maps drawn to scale can provide concrete examples of the meaning of “ratio”. Such experiences can be integrated with science and social studies projects. A transparency with overlays can show geometrical relationships, for example the relationship between a rectangle and a right-angle triangle or between a parallelogram and an isosceles triangle. Also, the relationship of area of triangle to area of rectangle can be clarified. (2 – p. 53)
Language: Language requires the development of skills in reading, spelling, listening, and writing. To read, the child must associate the spoken word with written or printed symbols. To write, he must develop and refine hand motor skills to reproduce the symbols. To spell, he must hear sounds and be able to distinguish one from another as well as to arrange the symbols for sounds I the correct order. Media are essential not only to the development of language skills, but also to stimulate written and oral expression. Pictures of objects can help the child associate words with their printed symbols. Used in a flannel board presentation, children can match words with pictures in a classroom recitation period. The same pictures displayed on a bulletin board along with the word symbol serve as a ready referent during a reading study period. (3 – p. 88)
CD recording is invaluable for developing listening skills. Students need to hear words, phrases, and sentences pronounced properly by several different speakers. Additionally, they benefit from hearing their pronunciation with that of the speaker. The motivation to learn that seems to accompany hearing one’s own voice is often just as important as the improvement in pronunciation. Recorded sounds can be used in sound discrimination drills. CD recordings can be made of stories. By stopping the tape when a sequence of events in a story has ended, children can be stimulated to tell what will happen next. Then, by turning on the tape recording, they can check the accuracy of their responses. CD recordings are also useful to build a background in the literature, poetry, and music of a country. Such recordings can be integrated with social studies when a particular country or nation is being studied. Dramatization and puppet shows are another useful way for children to learn to tell the stories. When reading, writing, and spelling skills are sufficiently developed, writing their own puppet show provides for using language skills creatively. Flash cards are suitable for many kinds of drill-word recognition, word ending usage, words that will complete a sentence. These cards also can be used on a flannel board in various kinds of matching exercises. Keep the student involved he should be encouraged to participate fully in the lesson by actively manipulating the flash cards or the flannel board pieces. Chalk talks, in which the teacher draws a scene on the chalkboard as she tells a story, also can be used for word symbol recognition and identification. To help children learn to sequence events in a story the teacher can draw in the next scene.
In the community: Media can contribute to communication in the community as well as in the classroom. Programs in the agriculture, health, family planning, community development, and cooperatives can all be more effective when a variety of media is used. Many of the ideas that have been found effective in the classroom can be adapted for informal group presentations. Frequently, in dealing with adult groups, the audience is relatively large, and may be scattered over a wide geographical area. Also the subject being communicated may be complex.in such cases a “campaign” with a positive approach to the subject may be most effective. Spot announcements over radio, newspaper ads or simple posters can attract attention. Demonstrations, slide shows, films, puppets or plays can impart information. Experts in the field can be used to reinforce presentations. Printed materials such as leaflets can be used to follow up presentations. Audience consideration determines the selection of media. What may work well in one culture may be out of place in another. When using a campaign approach to meet a community problem, unified approach can help make the communications more effective. This is a common technique in advertising where symbols such as the famous dog and photograph or well-known slogans immediately bring other ideas to mind.
- Baumgardner, Robert J., Dick Chamberlain, A.T. Dharmapriya and B.W. Staley. 1988. Materials case study: National diploma in technology-engineering. In ESP in the classroom.
- Eckstut, Samuella and Tom Miller 1986. Interlink. Oxford: Pergamon.
- Kagan, S. 1988. Cooperative learning: Resources for Teachers. Riverside CA.: University of California
- Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and Practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
- Mohan, B.A. 1986. Language and content. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.[schema type=»book» name=»“The importance of using media in ESP.”» author=»Kodirova L., Muhiddinova S., Ummatova M.» publisher=»БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА» pubdate=»2017-05-03″ edition=»ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_ 28.03.2015_03(12)» ebook=»yes» ]