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A TYPOLOGICAL VARIETY OF VEGETATION, THE FITOTSENOZ COMPONENTS IN TERRITORIES ADJACENT TO RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENOUS LOADING IN THE VILLAGE OF KABANGBAI THE BATYR TSELINOGRAD REGION OF AKMOLINSKY AREA




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The mankind which is quickly growing quantitatively began to get more and more intensively into difficult available areas and to involve natural resources in the sphere of the activity. So far under serious anthropogenous the arid territories making about 30% of the area of the terrestrial land which are considered nowadays as the reserve of lands, last for people, appeared a press also. Already today about 80% of the irrigated lands are the share of these areas, 170 million hectares are used under bogarny agriculture and 3,6 billion hectares — as pastures. Here lives about 800 million people or nearly of 20% of a world’s population.

Extent of manifestation and speed of course of various processes of desertification are mainly caused wrong economic activity of the person, not considering external and internal interrelations of the natural components regulating balance of substance and energy in landscapes and, eventually, biological efficiency of lands. Of course, the landscapes of arid and semi-arid territories having quite fragile structure and historically developed centuries-old impact of activity of the person on them are most sensitive to anthropogenous violations.

  • Among many global problems, perhaps, the problem of desertification is the least known though everyone knows that desert territories differ in extremely hot climate, big deficiency of moisture and quite fragile ecological system, but at the same time these lands have high economic potential. In scientific literature and official documents it is characterized as the last stage of process of slow degradation of environment in a droughty zone and is a product of difficult interaction between social and economic system and natural and anthropogenous factors.
  • Purpose: Determination of a typological variety of vegetation, components of a fitotsenoz and condition of a soil cover in territories adjacent to rural settlements in the conditions of the dry steppe.
  • Tasks:
  • To carry out route geobotanical monitoring of steppe vegetation and a soil cover, to define dynamics of the main components of a fitotsenoz, biological and economic efficiency of the studied sites to define extent of degradation of grass ecosystems.
  • To carry out the quantitative analysis of the studied objects.
  • The analysis of a typological variety of vegetation of the studied territory, allocation of the degraded sites and their assessment.
  • For carrying out researches expeditions were organized. Route geobotanical monitoring of steppe vegetation and a soil cover not territories adjacent to villages Petrovka and Novocherkassk is carried out. Researches were conducted in the direction from settlements on 4 main transects (the North, the South, the West, the East). In rural areas often main source of the income is the maintenance of a livestock. The main livestock of cattle is concentrated round settlements and auls that at non-compliance with rules of a pasture conducts to degradation of steppe vegetation. Specifics of the region is that the most part of farmlands round auls and villages is opened and taken away under crops of grain crops. The territory, free from crops, is used for a cattle pasture. Annual unsystematic pasturage of cattle significantly reduces efficiency of pastures in a radius up to 3-5 km from settlements. Trial platforms for studying of vegetation were put in the direction from the village at distance 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 m. On the studied site for studying of a fitotsenoz trial platforms were put 10х10 m in size (100 sq.m), within this area registration platforms of 50 X 50 cm in size, not less than in 4 povtornostyakh were defined. The choice of registration platforms was carried out by method of random numbers.
  • Objects of researches are the agricultural natural grounds adjacent to auls and villages located in a subband of the dry steppe of the Tselinograd region of Akmolinsky area. Researches were conducted in 2012 in the territory of the village of Kabangbai of the batyr, in 2013 in the territory of the village of Maksimovka and 2013 in the territory of the village Vozdvizhenka. Settlements are in a climatic zone of the dry steppe. For carrying out researches expeditions were organized. Researches were conducted in the direction from settlements on 4 main transects (the North, the South, the West, the East). On separate transects in view of the objective reasons the account wasn’t carried out. In the Tselinograd area in the territory of the village of Kabangbai of the batyr the account in the western direction wasn’t carried out as in this direction Nur’s river flows and on its coast development of construction material is conducted, in the northern direction the account was carried out to a point of 1500 m, further the direction is limited by Nur’s river, in the territory of the village of Maksimovka the account in the northern direction was carried out to distance of 500 m as forest plantations of Zhasyl Aimak LLP in the southern direction to 1500m as the river Ishim flows further settled down further, at once behind the river arable lands of country farms, round the territory of the village settle down
  • Vozdvizhenka bending around it the river Ishim flows, and behind it fields of crops are located and therefore the account in the northern direction was carried out to a point of 1500 m, in in east direction to a point of 2000 m, in southern to 100 m and in western to 500m. Geographical coordinates of the trial platforms put for carrying out the account and sampling are specified in table 1. Geographical coordinates of the trial platforms put for carrying out the account and sampling [3] are specified in table 1.

For carrying out researches on the accounting of steppe vegetation the method of variable squares was used. On the studied sites for studying of a fitotsenoz trial platforms of 10х10 m in size (100 sq.m) were put, within this area registration platforms of 25 X 25 cm in size were defined. The total area of the account makes not less than 1 sq.m. The choice of registration platforms was carried out by method of random numbers. Trial platforms for studying of vegetation were put in the direction from the village at distance 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 m.

During researches the following indicators were defined.

  1. The specific structure of a fitotsenoz — was defined as a result of analysis of samples of steppe vegetation, families and species of steppe herbs were defined.
  2. The quantity of plants — is defined by calculation of plants on variable platforms. I was determined total of plants and quantity of plants by types.

Feature of the village of Kabangbai Batyr of the Tselinograd area is the increased anthropogenous influence by a pasture of cattle and technogenic character. The southern and northern part of the settlement is washed by Nur’s river in which delta sand production by the private companies is made. The territory behind the river belongs to other rural district. From South side of the village Nur’s river is located practically closely, the river bank grew with bushes from family willow, the vegetable cover because of works on production of construction material is almost destroyed. Vegetable samples in this direction weren’t selected. In the northern direction vegetable samples for studying were selected to distance of 1500 m.

From East side at distance of 1000 m from the village the ground of household waste is located, vegetable samples weren’t selected here. This direction of the village of Kabangbai the batyr is presented by 10 species of the plants relating to 7 families and a sort, myatlikovy, slozhnotsvetny, marevy, lichens. Edifikatorami are Artemisia austriaca and Festuca sulcata these species of plants are present on all trial platforms. The quantity of plants on each trial platform was averaged by 170,2 pieces/sq.m (table 10). The greatest number of plants was revealed at a type of Artemisia austriaca (the 348th plant), types of Achillea millefolum, Bromus inermis, Potentilla erecta had the smallest number of representatives (on 1 plant).

Efficiency of phytomass of east direction averaged 191,52 g/m2. Practically presence at a fitotsenoza of Artemisia austriaca, Festuca sulcata, Stipa panneta, Lichenes, at a fitotsenoza is everywhere noted their mass fraction makes 98,8%. It should be noted in this direction in a fitotsenoza the main representatives dominants of steppe vegetation, such as a feather grass and типчак remained. Considering that, the essential share in a fitotsenoza is occupied also by a wormwood, drain of vegetation happens regularly here. The smallest phytoweight (57,0 g/m2) was revealed in a point of supervision of 500 m, the vegetation at this distance is exposed to intensive drain by a livestock of local population.

Further differences in formation of phytoweight in points of supervision of 1500-3000 m are explained by features of a relief. In this direction there are small eminences and hollows, in some cases with exits of maternal breed to a surface. Various conditions of moistening and indicators of fertility of the soil promote emergence of different conditions of formation of phytoweight.

The southern direction to the studied territory is presented by 9 species of the plants relating to 7 families and a sort, myatlikovy, slozhnotsvetny, marevy, lichens. Edifikatorami are Artemisia austriaca and Festuca sulcata these species of plants are present on all trial platforms. The quantity of plants on each trial platform averaged 79,8 pieces/sq.m. The greatest number of plants was revealed at a type of Artemisia austriaca (284 plants), the type of Alisum decentorum (1 plant) had the smallest number of representatives. The quantity of the types presented in a fitotsenoza averages 4-5 look.

Efficiency of phytoweight averaged 90,91 g/m2. As the main dominants here Artemisia austriaca, Festuca sulcata already act, to fall to their share 80,4% of phytoweight. The share of Stipa panneta is small, and this plant meets mainly to distance of 1500 m. This direction is often used by local population for a cattle pasture the revealed number of phytoweight in the main points of supervision practically at one level throughout studied a transect.

The northern direction to the studied territory is presented by 8 species of the plants relating to 7 families, myatlikovy, slozhnotsvetny, marevy, podorozhnikovy, seldereyny. The specific structure was defined to distance of 1500 m here. Further the territory is limited by Nur’s river where are conducted production of construction material. Edifikatorami are Artemisia austriaca and Agropyron cristatum these species of plants are present on all trial platforms. The quantity of plants on each trial platform averaged 79,3 pieces/sq.m. The greatest number of plants was revealed at a type of Artemisia austriaca (the 139th plant), the type of Astragalus glycyphyllos, Convolvulus arvensis had the smallest number of representatives (on 1 plant). The quantity of the types presented in a fitotsenoza averages 3-4 look. Efficiency of phytomass of the northern direction averaged 39,0 g/m2. Average number of phytoweight the smallest in comparison with other transects. The studied territory a deposit which was brought out of an agricultural turn many years ago. The main representatives of a fitotsenoz are Artemisia austriaca and Agropyron cristatum. 87,4% of phytoweight fall to their share, and in to point of 1500 m the main dominata are Artemisia austriaca and Festuca sulcata, here these plants make 92,0%.

Thus in the territory of the village of Kabangbai of the batyr 17 species of plants, from 12 families are revealed. As Edifikatorami mainly Festuca sulcata, Artemisia austriaca, Agropyron cristatum act. The average quantity of plants made from 79,3 pieces/sq.m in Northern and to 170,2 pieces/sq.m east direction. The transect of the village of Kabangbai strongly varies formation of biomass on various directions. In the conditions of the increased anthropogenous influence phytoweight northern (39,0 g/m2) the transect the smallest, in the conditions of a systematic pasture and other anthropogenous influence in the southern direction efficiency of phytoweight averaged 90,91 g/m2, and in the conditions of moderate anthropogenous influence on фитоценоз in east direction on average efficiency of phytoweight was maximum and made 191,52 g/m2.

Table 1 – Specific structure, quantity and phytomass of plants in the territory of the village of Kabangbai the batyr (2012), pieces/sq.m/g/sq.m *

Name  of plants

Distance from the settlement, m

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Всего
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

East

Artemisia austriaca 177

52,56

80

10,32

25

25,0

44

87,36

22

26,16

348

201,4

Festuca sulcata 2

1,36

58

57,8

75

80,72

20

3,24

18

66,32

173

209,44

Stipa panneta 3

1,52

3

8,0

1

195,44

12

22,36

9

11,96

28

239,28

Alissum desentorum 3

0,58

3

0,58

Achillea millefolum 1

0,52

1

0,52

Bromus inermis 1

0,52

1

0,52

Lichenes     80

47,52

59

59,0

125

179,36

30

10,92

294

296,8

Geratocarpus arenarius 2

0,16

2

0,16

Potentilla erecta 1

8,96

1

8,96

In total 187

57,0

0 221

123,64

160

360,16

203

292,48

80

124,32

851

957,6

Average 31,17

9,5

0 55,25

30,91

40

90,04

40,6

58,49

16

24,8

 30,5

42,7

Юг

Artemisia austriaca 115

40,0

45

40,92

43

48,4

28

22,24

14

37,32

39

45,4

284

234,28

Festuca sulcata 34

17,4

20

34,3

14

26,0

2

21,1

52

105,8

122

204,72

Polygonum aviculare 25

1,32

25

1,32

Artemísia absínthium 1

1,76

9

11,2

10

13,0

Stipa panneta 5

1,64

4

18,96

3

7,76

12

28,36

Agropyron cristatum 1

7,52

2

1,12

1

6,84

4

15,48

Euphorbia vіrgata 3

0,6

3

0,6

Alisum decentorum 1

0,32

1

0,32

Elymus junceus 13

40,0

3

7,04

16

47,04

Lichenes       2

0,36

    2

0,36

In total 180

62,12

70

101,7

64

83,12

45

83,72

68

144,72

52

70,52

479

545,48

Average 36

15,53

17,5

25,44

12,8

16,6

11,25

20,93

22,67

48,08

13

17,63

 18,87

24,0

Север

Artemisia austriaca 56

40,0

18

1,12

65

13,0

13

54,12

Convolvulus arvensis 1

4,72

1

4,72

Agropyron cristatum 10

9,72

41

38,52

51

48,24

Astragalus glyсyphyllos 1

0,84

1

0,84

Festuca sulcata 36

35,32

36

35,32

Phlоmis tubеrosa

яснотковые

2

1,0

2

1,0

Plantago major 6

2,16

6

2,16

Astrodaucus orientalis 2

1,04

2

1,04

In total 67

54,44

60

10,12

111

52,52

      238

117,08

Average 22,33

18,1

20

3,37

22,2

10,5

      21

10,7

* In numerator quantity of plants of piece/sq.m, in a denominator the mass of plants of g/m2

Conclusion

As a result of research of specific structure and quantity of plants showed that in the territory of the village of Kabangbai of the batyr 17 species of plants are revealed. As Edifikatorami mainly Festuca sulcata, Artemisia austriaca, Agropyron cristatum act. Efficiency of elevated part in the first half of the vegetative period of the village of Kabangbai of the batyr the number of phytoweight increased by 47,5%

List of references

1 The program for fight against desertification in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2015: approve. On January 24, 2005//www .unccd.int/ActionProgrammes/kazakstan-rus2005.pdf.

2 Shamsutdinov Z.Sh. and Shamsutdinov N. Z. Methods of ecological restoration of arid ecosystems in regions of pasturable animal husbandry//the Steppe bulletin.-2002. — No. 11. — Page 23-29.

3 Suvorova V. V., Voronov I.N.Botanik with fundamentals of geobotany. Leningrad. — 1979. Page 508-515.

A TYPOLOGICAL VARIETY OF VEGETATION, THE FITOTSENOZ COMPONENTS IN TERRITORIES ADJACENT TO RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENOUS LOADING IN THE VILLAGE OF KABANGBAI THE BATYR TSELINOGRAD REGION OF AKMOLINSKY AREA
Written by: Massenov Kairat, Amralin Askar, Hamitov Nurmuhambet
Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
Date Published: 05/22/2017
Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_ 30.01.2015_01(10)
Available in: Ebook