Crime control, detection of crimes, identification of criminals and bringing them to account for the criminal acts they committed stipulates for joint actions of all law-enforcement organs engaged in detection and investigation of crimes. It is necessary to note that the most important problem directly influencing on effectiveness of this cooperation is to ensure the coordination of joint actions. It should be admitted that some types of grave offences are committed in conditions of unobviousness, and for detection and investigation of these offences large volume investigative actions and use of information obtained by operational ways are required. It means that quick and accurate solution of crimes, institution of criminal proceedings against all guilty persons is impossible without well coordinated and reciprocal work of the organs of inquiry and preliminary investigation. On this point A.A.Mukhiddinov’s opinion that success of detection and investigation of crimes depend in large part on joint and concerted efforts of investigators and organs of inquiry is true [1, p. 137-138]. In this respect correctly organized joint activity, optimal distribution of duties between the investigator and the agents of the organs of inquiry, whose aim is to achieve a common result i.e. to investigate and solve the committed crimes in time, make it possible to attain the goal quickly and with least expenditure.
In the process of investigation of crimes the investigator and the agents of the organs of inquiry interact and coordinate their actions, and their professional relationship may be considered to be coordinated and interconnected actions for succeeding.
Coordination of actions by its definition is a work concerted by time, place and concrete actions of various law-enforcement bodies and their officials on performing the tasks of fighting crime. And the interaction of the investigator and the operative in fighting against criminality is an activity concerted by goals and objectives directed at quick solution of a criminal case and its accurate, objective and detailed investigation. Consequently, the interaction can be defined as a well-timed response upon statements and reports about crimes and accidents, continuous control of their timely and lawful solution and organization of detection and investigation of crimes.
V.I.Samarin gave his scientific definition of interaction as an activity in the context of cooperation of states representing mutual informational, operational, procedural and organizational support of the state bodies vested with corresponding competence in an effort to prevent and investigate socially dangerous acts provided by the criminal act, to convict the guilty persons and execute the sentences of the court .
Inherently, interaction of the investigator with the organs of inquiry in investigation of crimes expects reciprocal exchange of information about the course and results of the actions being carried out by them, mutual aid along the whole length of preliminary investigation on a specific fact of the committed crime.
Bilateral nature of assistance in interaction which is seen in the contact between the investigator and the organs of inquiry, sharing of information obtained during the investigative actions and other procedural and organizational measures insures the efficiency of performance of their tasks.
The most important condition of success in cooperation is consistency of actions carried out by the investigative organs and the organs of inquiry consisting in simultaneous or consecutive conducting of proceedings, investigative and operational search actions relating to different sides of the same case or conditions connected with each other or arising one after another.
Relations between the interacting sides being considered are characterized by the fact that the organizing role in these relations belongs to the investigator as a person responsible for investigation of crime, as long as he knows mostly about the case being investigated by him. He receives all the evidence about the case he is conducting. Reasoning from the available evidence and other information the investigator entrusts the organ of inquiry a task giving him basic information necessary in order to perform it. Therefore it is the investigator who organizes the interaction and bears full responsibility for its efficiency.
Naturally, the interacting sides’ subjective qualities such as professionalism, experience, good communication, sociability and many others are of no small importance for organization of effective interaction between law-enforcement bodies.
As M.Yu.Beketov fairly says that it is impossible to ensure the accomplishment of the purpose of criminal justice without additional revision of the theoretical basis of the investigator’s interaction with the organs of inquiry, elimination of contradictions in standard legal regulation and elaboration of scientific and practical recommendations as well as literal perception of theoretical regulations and legal norms by practical workers [3, p. 5].
As a whole, interaction usually takes place in the form of preparing of a plan of joint investigative actions and proceedings in which realization of different measures of both procedural and organizational order in the course of investigation of crime are envisaged.
Besides, upon the outcomes of investigation of a certain crime, independent action plans are worked out which may be conducted by the investigator and the organ of enquiry separately and which are submitted to each other’s approval so that their accomplishment ensures the attainment of the common goal, for the sake of which they are worked out.
Along with the interaction of the investigator and the organs of inquiry within the frame of national legislation, this interaction is also realized at the international level. Carrying out international cooperation by means of realization of interaction in the struggle against criminality, states use two main legal forms:
- Contractual legal or conventional – signing and realization of bilateral or multilateral contracts in which the relations with the law-enforcement bodies of foreign countries in this sphere are regulated.
- Institutional – cooperation within the framework of international organizations of both universal and regional character such as UNO, Interpol, CIC, OSCE, Shanghai Cooperation Organization and others.
It should be noted that the investigators and the organs of inquiry of different law-enforcement bodies participate in performance of the country’s obligations on all basic directions of interstate cooperation in fighting against criminality and protection of public safety, and their activity on this direction are carried out in close interaction with competent ministries and departments, first of all with the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and Office of Public Prosecutor that are directly responsible for coordination of crime control, foreign-policy line of the country in this direction.
As it has already been mentioned, international and legal component of regulation of the state’s participation in interstate cooperation in crime control includes international conventions, bilateral and multilateral contracts of different levels (of interstate, intergovernmental and interdepartmental character by which various questions of interaction are regulated).
At the same time interdepartmental agreements completed within jurisdiction of a separate ministry or department, and today there are several tens of them, should not contradict the active legislation and the country’s international contracts and, as a rule, they contain provisions regulating traditional forms of cooperation. The matter concerns first of all such formats as exchange of information and work experience, performance of inquiries about execution of investigative actions, legal proceedings in investigation of crimes.
As the practice shows one of the most effective organizational forms of ensuring of practical interaction of the investigator with the organs of inquiry and of other law-enforcement bodies with their foreign partners in fighting against criminality, particularly against its organizational forms such as illegal traffic in drug, arms and cultural values, human traffic, economical crimes is broadly developed in the world institute of law-enforcement bodies representatives operating on continuing basis at the embassies or consular offices of their own countries.
The investigator and the organs of inquiry as plenipotentiary representatives of competent law-enforcement bodies of a country realize procedural or organizational interaction with the foreign partners in fighting against criminality and in sharing experience.
Among them the one which is the main subdivision in realizing the international cooperation in crime control should be distinguished. The matter concerns the National Central Bureau of Interpol (NCB), the main coordinator of interaction with the competent organs of foreign countries, among the main objectives of which is maintenance of information exchange on questions of fighting against international criminality. Secretary General of Interpol and NCB of the member states coordinate the activity on execution of inquiries and notification of corresponding law-enforcement bodies about provision of information about crimes and criminals, wanted persons, objects and documents, about conducting observation of people suspected of criminal activity and others. Besides, the NCB of Interpol forms data bank of persons, facts, objects and documents on the basis of information received in the process of international cooperation.
The operative worker who is given the commission by the investigator first of all should make clear its purpose, size and then think over the ways of its realization, again, taking into account the certain circumstances of the criminal case and the existing prerequisites.
Under present-day conditions for achievement of tangible results in fighting against criminality more effective work on discovering crimes is demanded from the investigator and the organs of inquiry which supposes a higher level of interaction between them.
In conclusion it may be ascertained that some problems connected with the procedural order of interaction between the investigator and the organs of inquiry in investigation of crimes both in the framework of national legislation and international cooperation still exist. The ongoing reforms on improvement of criminal procedural legislation and international-and-legal regulation of interaction of authorized state bodies are aimed at increasing their effectiveness. Scientifically grounded proposals and practical recommendations directed at improvement of interaction of the investigator with the organs of inquiry in crime control will assist in perfection of interaction between the participants of criminal procedure in detection and investigation of crimes. Improvement of the basis of interaction between the mentioned subjects is one of the important trends of state activity in crime control.
List of literature:
- Мухиддинов A.A. Процессуальное положение следователя в уголовном процессе: Дисс… канд. юрид. наук. –– Ташкент, 2009.
- Самарин В.И. Взаимодействие органов Республики Беларусь, ведущих уголовный процесс, с учреждениями юстиции иностранных государств по уголовным делам: Автореф. дис. … канд. юрид. наук. – Минск, 2006.
- 3. Бекетов М.Ю. Взаимодействие следователя органов внутренних дел с милицией при производстве предварительного следствия: Автореф. дис. … канд. юрид. наук. – М., 2003.INTERACTION OF THE INVESTIGATOR AND THE BODIES OF INQUIRY IN CRIME CONTROL IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN: SIGNIFICANCE, FORMS AND WAYS OF THEIR IMPROVEMENTThe article deals with the questions concerning improvement of criminal procedural interaction, international aspects of cooperation of states in crime control, peculiarities of procedural interrelations between the investigator and the organs of inquiry in detection and investigation of crimes. Legal aspects of improvement of national legislation and international cooperation in crime control are considered.Written by: Karimova Dilrabo ErgashevnaPublished by: Басаранович ЕкатеринаDate Published: 12/08/2016Edition: euroasia-science_30_22.09.2016Available in: Ebook