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The insufficient physical activity, adverse environmental conditions and low biological and nutritional value of the food products result in serious deterioration of the human health. In the food of the people there is a deficit of proteins, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber and minerals. Therefore it is essential to create functional products which will restore the deficit of the natural bioregulators. They help to better adapt the body to the environment and have toning, antistress, immunomodulatory and cardiotonic effect.

Priority direction is production of functional bakery products enriched with natural dietary supplements of plant origin. The use of such supplements not only allows to improve the consumer properties of bread products, but also to recover the deficit of the substances necessary for the body.

The most important task of the baking industry is to provide stable high quality bakery products with complex bakery improvers. The use of such components solves many problems, some of which associated with the reduced quality of raw materials — flour with too high or too low gluten content [1, p. 876-886].

Biotechnological processes are the basis of bread production technology, and the good knowledge of these processes allows successful control of the high quality bread obtaining processes. The improvement of bread production technologies is closely related to the use of biologically active substances helping the intensification of dough fermentation processes, shortening the time for its maturation, and contributing to getting bread of relatively high volume and developed porosity.

The use of supplements from plant raw materials, containing a complex of biologically active substances, allows to improve the production technology and get bread with functional purpose. As natural vegetable raw material in the production of bread can be used beans cultures as well. Chickpeas enriches the bread with proteins and other nutrients [2, р.237-243].

The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of chickpea on the flow rate of biotechnological processes when forming the test with good quality physical and chemical parameters and to develop technology for the preparation of bread with higher nutritional value.The dosage of additives used in the recipe was  defined as a result of this experiment. Of the first stage of the study, is examined the chemical composition of the additive used — flour of dry chickpea. The results are given in Table 1.

Тable 1

Nutritional value of 100 g raw chickpeas





Саrbohydrates,% 60,65
Total sugars,% 10,7
Dietary fibers,% 17,4
Ash content,% 2,48
Total fats,%

—  saturated

—  monoinsaturated

—  polinsaturated





Мineral substances

—  Magnesium, mg%

—  Iron, mg%

—  Phosphorus, mg%

—  Calcium, mg%

—  Potassium, mg%

—  Sodium, mg%

—  Cuprum, mg%

—  Zinc, mg%

—  Мanganese, mg%

—  Selenium,μg%













—  Vitamin С, mg%

—  Vitamin К, μg%

—  Vitamin Е, mg%

—  β-carrotin, μg%

—  Thiamine, mg%

—  Niacin, mg%

—  Riboflavine, mg%

—  Acid pantotenic, mg%

Acid folic, μg%

—  Pyridoxine, mg%












The results of the study show that the chickpeas contain a significant amount of biologically active substances — Table 1 and 2.

The highest is the content of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. The minerals play an important role in the formation and construction of body tissues, and particularly of the bone skeleton. They participate in maintaining the acid-base balance of the body; creating the physiological concentration of hydrogen ions in the tissues and cells, between the tissues and intercellular fluids; for creating normal reaction, and normal running of the process of exchange of substances and energy, including the water-salt exchange.  Well known is the role of minerals for the fermentation processes and for the function of the thyroid gland.

The fiber content reaches 17.4%. The high content of fiber not only increases the body’s resistance to adverse environmental impact, but also has its positive effect on the motor function of the intestines. They interact with the toxic elements which enter to the digestive tract and form insoluble salts which can easily be removed from the body. Fibers have the ability to regulate cholesterol levels in the blood.

It was found that the chickpeas contain biologically active substances which can serve as natural regulators of the oxidative processes. Such substances are the organic antioxidants: β-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C.

The chickpea is source of isoflavones, which have estrogen-like effect and suppress the formation of tumors. The chickpea is a source of folic acid.

The chickpea contains a lot of proteins (about 20% of its dry content) needed for the cell recovery of the body.

The proportion of the essential amino acids is more than 53%.

Most small is the amount of the contained choline, tryptophan, methionine and cystine. The highest is the content of arginine, leucine, lysine and phenylalanine.

From the non essential amino acids, the greatest is the proportion of glutamic and aspartic acids. The details of the study are given in Table 2.

Тable 2

Amino-acid composition of raw chickpeas

Аmino acids Сontent, g
Тhreonine 0,716
Тryptophane 0,185
Isoleucine 0,828
Lysine 1,291
Leucine 1,374
Мethionine 0,253
Phenylalanine 1,034
Valine 0,809
Аlginine 1,819
Alanine 0,828
Histidine 0,531
Choline 0,095
Serine 0,973
Proline 0,797
Аspartic acid 2,27
Glycine 0,803
Glutamic acid 3,375
Tyrosine 0,479
Cystine 0,259

In order to develop a recipe for functional bread and to determine the optimal amount of additive, were conducted laboratory baking tests. In the formulation, the wheat flour was successively replaced  with chickpeas flour in the amount of 10 to 30%. The recipe for the reference (control) bread was taken as a basis. The optimum additive amount in the recipe was established as a result of the analysis of physical and chemical indicators and the organoleptic properties of the resulting test samples. The quantity of used additive, the porosity and the volume of the resulting bread were chosen as variables.

Object of study is the wheat flour type 500, produced by the company Sofia Mel. The main factor characterizing the baking properties of wheat flour is the gluten, which combines the structural and mechanical properties of the gliadin and glutamine fractions. When kneading the dough, gluten forms the continuous phase of the wheat dough. In the process of fermentation, the CO2 contained ensures the good loosening of the dough. During baking, the swelled gluten protein is subjected to irreversible denaturation and strengthens the porous structure of the bread.

The enriching additive in the bakery enterprises should be stored in a dry form, and the grinding should be carried out in two stages: first to a particle size passing through a sieve having holes diameter of 3 mm, and then to a powder.

It should be noted that the chickpea flour does not require new equipment, which means that each bakery can make bakery products of wheat flour enriched with chickpea flour.

The parameters of the basic technological stages in the production of the test specimens are: kneading the dough — 8 minutes; pre-fermentation — 30 minutes at 30°C; molding the dough billets of 230 and 440g; Final fermentation — 45 minutes at 35-38оС; duration of baking -18 minutes at 200-220оС.

Bread produced of wheat flour type 500 is used as a reference (control) sample. The results of the research show that the data obtained for the reference sample comply with the quality standards. The new product, with added chickpea flour, differs by the lower gluten content.

It is therefore necessary to examine the impact of the additive on the baking properties of the flour, since the flour mixtures have different baking properties. In order to establish the optimum quantity of additive were tested three flour mixtures. The quantity of additive used was 10%, 20% and 30% respectively, by replacing the corresponding quantity of wheat flour.

The increase in the acidity of the flour mixtures is smooth and proportional to the increase of the additive quantity to the flour. The value of the acidity of the flour mixtures exceeds the permissible value for this type of flour. Probably, the increase of the titratable acidity values is due to the presence of organic acids in the additive.

The ash content of flour mixture, against the reference bread value, increases, and the increase depending on the additive amount is smooth. The increase in the value of the ash content of the flour mixes is due to the higher ash content of the additive and implies enriching of the flour mixture with mineral substances.

The values of the parameter yield of wet gluten for all flour mixtures are lower than its values for flour type 500. Tendency of reducing gluten for all flour mixtures against the gluten of the flour is observed.

Qualitative characteristics of the bread, as sufficient volume, proper form, elastic crumb with small thin pores and uniform porosity is determined primarily by the quantity and physical properties of gluten, by its elasticity, expansibility, plasticity. In order to study the influence of the additive on the baking properties of the wheat flour, an analysis of the isolated gluten and its properties was performed.

Proteins of the wheat dough are quite unstable colloids and their rheological properties can be greatly modified under the influence of various physical and chemical effects.

The analysis of the results from studying the influence of various factors on the rheological properties of the washed gluten and dough allows to separate a group of substances, not affecting the properties of the isolated gluten, but  increasing the elasticity and reducing the extensibility of the dough. By the speed of showing the effect of the impact, some of them have an impact at the time of kneading the dough, while others require at least one hour time.

It is therefore necessary to examine the impact of the chickpea on the physical properties of dough. This is established by spreading the ball of dough indicator. The additive affects the quality of wet gluten by reducing its loosening of 1,5 mm for all flour mixtures.

The analysis of the results of studying the strength of the flour testifies, that the additive brings down the spreading of the dough ball, which substantially affects the stability of the bread shape. The shape stability of bread made of enriched mixtures of the flour is approximately equal to that of the reference bread.

Comparative tests of enriched and not enriched dough have been performed by the method of dough ball emerging on the water surface per unit time. The lifting strength of the ball dough, obtained from the reference is 5,0 min, and with the chickpea flour additive 3-4 min.

In order to make a baking characteristics of the used flour mixtures, the study continued with running laboratory test baking of bread using flour type 500 without and with chickpea flour additive in different percentages — 10%, 20% and 30% of the flour mass.

The physical and chemical parameters studied show that the additive used in the bakery products leads to an increase in the relative volume, porosity and shape stability. It has a positive impact on the structural and mechanical properties of the bread crumb. The bread crumb is very soft, elastic, and after removing the deformation it easily occupies its original shape.

The use of Chickpea flour as a natural food additive in the formulations of functional bakery products allows toincrease water absorption ability of wheat flour, to enhance the action of yeast cells, to accelerate the fermentation process and to shorten the period of dough maturation. The high content of proteins, vitamins and minerals in the chickpea flour increases the nutritional value of the finished products.

The experimental studies performed prove the expediency of production of bakery products with chickpeas flour additive, because they not only improve the organoleptic and physical and chemical parameters, but they also improve the technological parameters and increase the nutritional value of the product.

On the grounds of the studies performed the following conclusions can drawn:

  1. It has been found that the chickpea flour contains a complex of biologically-active substances which may be used for improving the quality and nutritional value of bread products. Chickpea flour enriches the bakery products with amino acids, fibers, minerals and vitamins. Moreover, it increases the antioxidant activity of the bakery products.
  2. The storage of chickpea flour for 12 months under unregulated temperature conditions does not lead to deterioration of its quality and to significant losses of its biologically active substances.
  3. The presence of vitamins, minerals and monosaccharides in the additive intensifies the activity of the yeast cells, accelerates the fermentation process and shortens the time of dough
  4. On the basis of the laboratory experiments were established the optimum quantities of the additive in the formulations of the test bread samples with good consumer properties.
  5. The regimes of the main process operations for running laboratory baking of bread test samples were established. The duration of final fermentation of enriched dough is reduced by 10 min compared to that of the reference.
  6. The enriched bread products have very good stability of the Titratable acidity and ash content are higher than those of flour type 500 and the wet gluten and its loosening reduce proportionately to the used additive quantities.


list  literature:

  1. Bojňanská,T., H. Frančáková and M. Tokár, (2012). Legumes – the alternative raw materials for bread production. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. Vol. 1, p. 876-886.
  2. Sànches-Vioque, R., R. Clemente, A. Vioque, J. Bautista, J. Millàn, (1998). Protein isolates from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): chemical composition, functional properties and protein Food Chemistry. Vol. 64, p.237-243.
    The possibilities for creating wheat flour mixtures, enriched with flour of dry chickpeas, has been studied. Defined are some of the basic physical and chemical parameters of wheat flour mixtures obtained on the basis of wheat flower type 500 with the addition of various percentages of chickpeas flour, calculated to the mass of the flour. Examined is the strength of proteins enriched dough. Established are the regimes of the main technological processes for obtaining bread from the enriched wheat flour mixtures.
    Written by: Georgieva Antoaneta Vassileva
    Date Published: 01/18/2017
    Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_28.11.15_11(20)
    Available in: Ebook