An innovative model of development of our country is costly to the fundamental science and education science. The strategy clearly identified the main directions of state policy in the field of science: its identification as strategic social and economic priorities;
Research development aimed at developing knowledge-based resource and environmentally friendly production, the creation of mechanisms and incentives to encourage the practical implementation of scientific achievements, strengthening the material base for scientific research .
In relation to agriculture (agrarian and industry) innovation is the realization of economic practice in research and development results in the form of new plant varieties, breeds and species of animals and poultry crosses, new or improved food products, materials and new technologies in agriculture, animal husbandry and processing industry, new fertilizers and crop protection and animal species, new methods of prevention and treatment of animals and birds, new forms of organization and management of different spheres of economy, new approaches to social services that improve production efficiency.
On the subject and scope of agriculture is expedient to distinguish four types of innovation:
— Selection and genetic (new varieties and hybrids of crops, new breeds, types of animals and poultry crosses, the creation of plants and animals that are resistant to pests and diseases, adverse environmental factors);
— Technical and technological and production (the use of new techniques, new technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops, new industrial technologies in animal husbandry, science-based system of agriculture and livestock, fertilizers, and their new systems, new crop protection agents, the greening of agriculture, new resource-saving technologies production and storage of food products aimed at improving consumer value);
— Organizational, managerial and economic (development cooperation and the formation of integrated structures in agriculture, new forms of maintenance and provision of resources agriculture, new forms of organization and motivation, new forms of organization and management in agribusiness, marketing, innovation, creation of innovation and advisory systems in the field of science, technology and innovation, concepts, methods of decision-making, forms and mechanisms of innovation development);
— Social and ecological (forming a system of training scientific and technical support of agriculture, improvement of working conditions, making healthier, education and culture of the rural workers, promotion and enhancement of environmental quality, provision of favorable environmental conditions for living, working and recreation).
The first type of innovation is unique to agriculture.
The innovation process is the process of converting scientific knowledge into innovation. The innovation process involves the following stages: «Science – engineering (technology) — Production — Consumption.» In the agricultural innovation processes is a constant flow of transformation of research and development into new or improved products, materials, new technologies, new forms of organization and management, and bring them to use in production in order to achieve the effect. Sustainable operation of agriculture, as well as other areas of agriculture, ensuring the competitiveness of domestic food is inextricably linked to the intensification of innovative processes.
Innovation processes in agriculture have their specificity. They differ in a variety of regional, sector, functional, technological and organizational features. Analysis of the conditions and factors affecting the innovative development of agriculture allowed to divide them into negative (hindering innovation development) and positive (to accelerate innovation processes).
Conditions and factors that contribute to innovative development of agriculture, a transition to a market way of economy, natural resources, considerable scientific and educational potential, capacious domestic food market, the ability to produce environmentally safe, natural foods.
As a negative environment factors should be noted the diversity of scientific and technical innovation; substantial share in the research issues of regional, sectional and multifunctional nature, long duration of the study some of the problems associated with the reproduction process. This specificity creates difficulties in the management of agrarian research and agricultural science in general .
One of the peculiarities of agriculture lies in the fact that along with industrial production means living organisms- plants and animals take an active part in the reproduction process. Development of their action is subjected to natural laws, and depends on natural factors such as climate, weather, heat, moisture, light and nutrition. V.R. Williams said: «Plants require a continuous flow of prosperity and uninterrupted flow of the four groups of factors — light, heat, water and nutrients in continuous condition of simultaneous and co-flow of all four factors in optimal amounts in absolute equivalence and independence of” .
Expanded reproduction in agriculture takes place in the interaction of economic and natural biological processes. Therefore, the management of innovation is required to take into account the requirements not only of economic laws, but laws of nature: the equivalence of essential and vital combination of factors, laws, minimum, optimum and maximum. Act indispensable factor of production is manifested in the fact that, for example, selection does not compensate for the fertilizer grade cannot compensate the blanks farming or breeding business is not to replace forage. According to the law of minimum, productivity is constrained by factors that are at the minimum. For example, the level of productivity of livestock is determined by the substance, the highest number which is in the ration, in accordance with the law, the maximum excess of any one nutrient in excess of the needs of the animal will not increase its productivity. The complex nature of innovation in agriculture imposes specific requirements for an innovative mechanism (the legal basis of innovative development, organization and management, innovative marketing, the development of innovative structures).
In agriculture, even the slightest omission is fraught with undesirable consequences. K.A. Timiryazev said: «Nowhere, perhaps, than in any other activities is not required to weigh the many different conditions of success, never needed such multilateral information anywhere fascination with one-sided point of view cannot lead to such a failure, as in agriculture» .
The complexity of agricultural production and its features predetermine the originality of approaches and methods for managing the innovation process, a combination of different types of innovation, strengthening the state’s role in stimulating innovation.
It should be noted that the complexity and peculiarities of agricultural production are characterized by high risks of innovation processes in the agricultural sector. Risk funding research and production results, the risk of a temporary gap between costs and results, the uncertainty of demand for innovative products do not interest private investors to invest in agricultural development.
The conditions and factors hindering the development of innovations in agriculture are also compression of domestic demand for food, reduction of state support of agriculture and public funding of scientific and technical programs, inadequate credit system, high interest rates, lack of innovation infrastructure and state innovation policies and strategies inadequate training of the personnel organizations of agrarian and industrial complex in the area of innovation management.
There is still a scientific potential in the agricultural sector in Kazakhstan which actively generates scientific and technological progress and transforms its achievements in production. However, further development and implementation of their research and developmental works (R&D) results into production is hampered by lack of specialized structures, whose main goal is the commercialization of R&D and transfer of innovative production of machine-building enterprises, as well as inadequate funding for the design and development of innovative products. Therefore, one of the areas of solving problems is the organization in the field of Agriculture subject of innovation, providing not only for R&D to create innovative products, but also accelerate the implementation of their results. Innovation activity requires skilled professionals. Provide training for such personnel is possible by implementing the integration of science and higher education in the subjects created an innovative structure.
Kazakhstan Investment and Innovation Fund were created to commercialize new projects. Select the most promising of them, to understand the economic attractiveness, invest and adapt to the market and do not miscalculate the demand is not easy. So today there is reliance on technology parks and business incubators.
Technical parks lease vacant industrial area under production, which gives the entrepreneurs the opportunity to save on construction of buildings.
In conditions when the majority of agricultural engineering enterprises of the republic is in serious condition, the particular significance is the establishment of Technical park on Agrarian and industrial complex based of scientific and production centre of the Agriculture Ministry, whose activities will focus on:
-The shaping and development of ideas that promote scientific progress in the field of Agriculture;
— Bring together research, experimental design, educational organizations and representatives of business sphere to meet the needs of agriculture in the new technology;
— Promoting the creation of new innovative industries and attract them to the development of domestic and foreign investment;
— Commercialization of R&D results, turning them into consumers perceived products and services and transfer of innovative products from research institutes in the sphere of business, including directly to industrial enterprises;
— Providing marketing, consulting and management services to representatives of innovative entrepreneurship;
— Education and training for the agricultural sector and improve their skills.
The purpose and objectives created industrial park, its complexity, consisting of elements of models of science park, business incubator and consulting firm, will accelerate the advancement of scientific and technological ideas in the chain: laboratory research institutes and universities — Design Office — Pilot production — Mass production — a market that significantly will affect the formation and maintenance of agricultural machinery industry agribusiness new agricultural machinery and equipment, as well as to train highly qualified personnel of agrarian engineering .
- J.H. Kalimullin, A. J. Koylyubaeva. Innovation development of Kazakhstan at the present stage. // Alpari — № 1 — 2004.-p.68
- I.G. Ushachev Problems of formation of innovation management in agriculture: Proceedings of the international scientific and practical conference «Innovation in agriculture: experience and problems». — M., 2005. — p. 3.
- W.R. Williams Grassland system of farming // Coll. cit. — M.: Sel’khozgiz, 1951. V. VII. — 9
- K.A.Timiryazev Agriculture and plant physiology // Works. lectures and speeches. — M.: Sel’khozgiz, 1957. — p. 40.
- A. Gribanovsky Agrarian and industrial complex — a new technique and equipment / Industry of Kazakhstan. — 2007. № 2 (41).CONDITIONS AND FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE PROCESSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF THE ECONOMYThere are considered features of innovative processes in agrarian sector of economy in the article. On the basis of the analysis of scientific literature are revealed specifics and classification of innovations, conditions and factors influencing innovative development in agro-industrial production.Written by: Bauer MairaPublished by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНАDate Published: 01/30/2017Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_31.10.15_10(19)Available in: Ebook