Observed global warming within the last decades became the reason for the territory desertification that in the turn increased threat of locust danger. Ecosystems of arid and droughty climate countries, including Kazakhstan were most vulnerable to the climate changes in general and to global warming in particular. At a turn of millennia devastating spates of locust invaded countries of Africa, Australia, South America, East and Southeast Asia [1,р.630; 2,р,12; 3,р.14].
The search of ways, methods of quantity restriction and injuriousness of locust that is an important and actual task, is impossible without analysis of modern ecological situation in the region, features of anthropogenous influences influence on locust populations, including held large-scale destructive events.
The work was performed within the program of grant financing of Committee of science of MES RK for the project «Locust (Orthoptera, Acridoidea): fauna and ecology in connection with climate change, improvement of quantity forecast, planning of fight measures».
The injuriousness of locust in fodder lands of Zhangalinsky region of semidesertic zone of West Kazakhsan area was studied for the objectives solution.
During the project implementation modern insecticides were studied as chemical fight against locust: detsis-extra, herold, tanrek.
Biological efficiency of insecticides was defined by comparison of larvae quantity before processing and calculation according to the accepted formula.
Not gregarious locust in conditions of semidesertic zone of West Kazakhstan is widespread practically everywhere, also the circle of plants eaten by it is wide.
In 2015, we noted transition of Italian locust larvae to crops in farms of Zhangalinsky area.
In Zhanakazansky rural district of Zhangalinsky area located in a semidesertic zone, the maximum quantity of Italian locust on natural pastures was from 7 species/sq.m, on summer barley — 4 species/sq.m and 5 species/sq.m on Sudanese grass crops.
The deposit of egg-pods and born larvae of Italian locust and harmful grasshoppers during the spring period were noted in conditions of West Kazakhstan at carrying out inspections of agricultural lands, generally on virgin sites, deposits and natural pastures. Having migrated on grain crops, larvae first of all ate away broadleaf weeds. In Zhangalinsky area the case of larvae transition of the 2-3rd ages of Italian locust and grasshoppers from natural pastures to the next field of summer barley was noted. Crops damage are insignificant in all cases, death of crops wasn’t allowed as further distribution and injuriousness of larvae were limited by carrying out chemical processings.
For timely destruction of harmful locust in places of their mass reproduction, strict accounting of all places of concentration of wintering egg-pods and detailed supervision over the hatching and mass emergence of the 1st-2nd age larvae is necessary. At the same time locust as an integral component of grassy biocenoses, play an essential role in the nutrients circulation. Locust not simply eats plants, but, eating only their small part, they crumble and crush the rest. Thus they create a weight suitable for further use and processing by other animals, and also fungus and bacteria. Moreover, it is shown that enrichment of the processed vegetable weight by B group vitamins occurs in locust intestines due to symbiotic microorganisms [4,p.55; 5,p.45].
In 2015 our researches on the determination of biological efficiency of insecticides were carried out in Zhangalinsky area. The total area of allotment is 1 hectares, the frequency is triplev. The researches were carried out on natural pastures. During chemical processings against Italian locust, the pest was presented generally by larvae of the 2nd age.
Accounting of the researches carried out in Zhangalinsky area showed that biological efficiency of the tested insecticides was from 94,8 to 97,8%. The highest efficiency was received from the application of such preparations as Gerold and Tanrek. The greatest death of locust larvae was noted at the application of Herald preparation – 97,8% and Tanrek preparation – 97,0%. The smallest efficiency was shown by Detsis-extra preparation; the death of larvae was 94,8%.
The carried out researches allowed establishing that maximum efficiency of insecticides was noted for the 9th day after their application where 92% of the pest larvae were dead. Rather high effect was reached at the application of Gerold and Tanrek preparations. Here the death of locust larvae for the 9th day after processing was 91,5-92,0%. However, the efficiency of mix decreased to 90% for the 15th day after application. At the choice of insecticide it is necessary to consider the main indicators of toxicity and properties of preparations and also phytosanitary situation in locust centers.
Insecticides with high speed of toxic action provide fast decrease in locust quantity; thereby prevent their migrations in agrocnosises and possible losses of crops. It is especially important at the processings during mass reproduction of pests.
Gerold showed high efficiency in Zhangalinsky area among the studied preparations on action duration at the continuous processings against Italian locust larvae of the 2nd age; the smallest efficiency was at Detsis-extra preparation. Tanrek is intermediate by efficiency.
The results of our researches showed that Gerold and Tanrek insecticides are the most effective in fight with locust in conditions of semidesertic zone of West Kazakhstan region; the efficiency of Herald preparation remains high within 28 days, Tanrek — 10-14 days; application of Herald preparation in the barrier way causes 95%, by continuous — 96% death of Italian locust larvae of the 2nd age.
Thus, monitoring of locust carried out in fodder lands of semidesertic zone of West Kazakhstan region revealed injuriousness of especially widespread types – Italian and Asian locust and defined the most effective preparations applied in fight with it.
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- Dolzhenko V.I., Naumovich O.N., Nikulin А.А. Vrednye saranchovye // Zashchita i karantin rastenij (prilozhenie). — 2003. — № 5. — Р.53-80.
- Stolyarov, M.V. Problemy stadnyh saranchovyh (Orthoptera) yuga Rossii na rubezhe vekov: tezisy dokladov XII sezda Russkogo ehntomologicheskogo obshchestva. — S.- Peterburg: RAN, 2002. – 335 p.INJURIOUSNESS OF LOCUST AND EFFICIENCY OF MODERN PREPARATIONSAbout 270 types of locust insects live in various natural economic zones of Kazakhstan. The greatest danger to agricultural lands is constituted by 15-20 types. Among them especially dangerous types are Asian (pereletnay) locust (Locusta migratoria L.) and Italian locust (Calliptamus italicus L.) on the extent of distribution and level of injuriousness. As a result of our researches, the data on locust harmfulness, biological efficiency of modern insecticides in conditions of semidesertic zone of West Kazakhstan region was determined.Written by: Beybit NasiyevPublished by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНАDate Published: 12/25/2016Edition: euroasian-science.ru_25-26.03.2016_3(24)Available in: Ebook