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INFLUENCE OF USE MODES ON THE CURRENT STATE OF PASTURES VEGETATION




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In the XX century arid ecosystems of Eurasia underwent intensive anthropogenous influence. In view of this their efficiency decreased, valuable types of fodder plants disappeared from herbage, vulnerable ecosystems are exposed to degradation. Today there are 187 million hectares of pastures in the republic from which about 81 million hectares are used, thus, among the used pastures — 26 million hectares are degraded — these are generally pastures near the settlements [1,р.5; 2,р.36].

Numerous scientific searches and development of scientific institutions of agricultural and biological profile show that to maintain ability of pastures to continuous seed and vegetative renewal and reproduction of necessary level of fodder resources, it is necessary to exploit them within ecological imperative.

The first ecological precept of rational use of pastures is an observance of compliance principle of their natural capacity of grazing animals’ quantity. Long-term scientific researches carried out in the second half of the 20th century by the scientists of different countries show that without prejudice to the subsequent efficiency of pastures it is possible to withdraw in various natural zones from 25 up to 75% of elevated vegetable weight [3, p.50; 4, p.42; 5, p.15].

The work is performed within the program of grant financing of Committee of science of MES RK on «Assessment of condition and development of adaptive technologies of rational use of semidesertic pasturable ecosystems» project.

The accounting of productivity and regime supervision of specific structure changes, cenopopulational structure of pasturable ecosystems by seasons, definition of feeding capacity of pastures were carried out for the objectives solution on semidesertic zone pastures of West Kazakhsan region (Zhangalinsky area).

Transects of 100х50 m in size were put for the alienation influence study of annual gain of elevated weight in the course of pasture on zonal typical pastures. The pasture was carried out at the beginning, middle and end of spring, in summer and in autumn. Schemes herbages drain: 1. Full 100% drain of annual gain of pasturable plants; 2. Moderate drain – 65-75% of annual gain of pasturable plants. Full (100% of annual gain) and moderated (65-75% of annual gain) drain was carried out to all terms of drain: at the beginning, middle and end of spring, in summer and in autumn.

Floristic structure of test sites. Weak mode of pasture is observed (30-40% drain) on pastures site which was earlier under intensive influence of animals over the last 10 years. Typical cereals (Stipa, Festuca and others) are absent here; Agropyron desertorum is presented by only several copies. Floristic variety is made here by 9 types (background), including many representatives of herb. 11 types (background) of plants are most widespread on the site with moderate pasture. Long-term cereals — Stipa capillata, Agropyron desertorum, Leymus ramosus are typical here. Specific variety of plants — 9 types (background) which are presented by generally low-eaten and weed types is the lowest on the site with full 100% pasture (Artemisia austriaca, Alyssum turkestanicum, Chenopodium album, Ceratocarpus arenarius and others). Ephemeral plants develop in spring period on all three sites. Assessment of floristic similarity between sites shows that grazed (moderate and full) sites (coefficient of similarity 66,1%) are the most similar among themselves and the least similar is a site with weak mode of pasture with full pasture (53,06%) site.

Changes in production of communities under the influence of pasture. Maximum production of phytoweight on thepasture with full pressure was noted at the end of April during mass development of ephemeral plants and reached 1,28 c/ha. Major role as a part of production was played by Poa bulbosa. Further, the decrease in production was observed to 1,15 c/ha in summer and to 0,42 c/ha in autumn.

On the site with weak mode of pasture and on the pasture with moderate pressure where ephemeral plants do not play a significant role, maximum of production was noted in the middle of June — 7,33 and 5,25 c/ha respectively.

To the middle of summer on the site with moderate use there was a decrease in production of vegetation to the minimum values that is connected with forbs representatives loss from vegetation structure and drying of cereals – 4,60-5,75 c/ha. In autumn the efficiency of the specified sites was 3,28-2,51 c/ha.

In spring the greatest weight cereals form on the pasture with full pasturing (2,04 c/ha), and the smallest — on the site with weak mode of pasturing (0,38). Phytomass of cereals in general share of production on these two sites fades away to the middle of the first month of summer as only annual cereals which completely dry by this time participated in production synthesis.

On the pasture with moderate pasture the main role in production synthesis of pasture phytomass in summer period is played by long-term cereals forming to 2,98 c/ha of production.

They almost completely dry by the end of summer. Here, from the beginning of autumn rains and the beginning of secondary vegetation of cereals, the small gain of green material — 0,54 c/ha was noted. Only forbs participate in summer production synthesis of the site with weak mode of use (as well as on the site with full use). Summer maximum of its production here is almost completely defined by development steppe forbs and makes 5,75 c/ha which by the end of summer decreases almost twice (3,25 c/ha). In autumn basic mass of forbs production fell on Artemisia lerchiana and Artemisia austriaca – 2,99 c/ha.

On the site of moderate pasture, forbs production for all vegetative period was at the level of 4,60 c/ha in spring, 5,25 c/ha in summer and 2,51 c/ha in autumn. On the site with full use, spring forbs production was more than during other seasons 1,28 c/ha. By the beginning of summer it decreased to 1,15 c/ha and was at the level of 0,42 c/ha until the vegetative period end.

Great values of phytoweight production on the site with full use are reached at the expense of increase in mass of plants species eaten by animals or well adapted for the pasture which dominate here generally.

Thus, the pasture of agricultural animals renders very essential and various impact on a vegetable cover of pastures depending both on intensity of their use and dominating vegetation type.

References

  1. Zhang K, Zhao K. Afforestation for sand fixation in China. J. of arid environmеnt, 2011, 16/ 1: — Р. 3-10.
  2. Ogar N.P. Transformaciya rastitelnogo pokrova Kazahstana v usloviyah sovremennogo prirodopolzovaniya./ Institut botaniki i fitointrodukcii. – Almaty, 1999. – 131 р.
  3. Shamsutdinov Z.Sh. Dolgoletnie pastbishchnye agrofitocenozy v aridnoj zone Uzbekistana. – Tashkent: FAN UzR, 2012. – 167 р.
  4. Rodin L.E. Produktivnost pustynnyh soobshchestv // V sb.: Resursy biosfery. – L.: Nauka, 1975. – Vyp. 1. – 286 р.
  5. Ivanov V.V. Stepi Zapadnogo Kazahstana v svyazi s dinamikoj ih pokrova. — М.- L.: Nauka, 1958.- 292 р.
    INFLUENCE OF USE MODES ON THE CURRENT STATE OF PASTURES VEGETATION
    Barriers between many countries were liquidated since 2015 due to the Euroasian Union, allowing procedures were simplified, veterinary norms were unified, thereby all conditions for the export volumes accumulation were created. The existence of natural fodder lands, low-cost pasturable technology of meat cattle breeding creates potential for formation of Kazakhstan as a significant and competitive player in the world market. In this regard, the increase of efficiency of natural pastures is a priority task. The researches established expediency of moderated (65-75% drain) use of pastures. The change of floristic structure and efficiency, deterioration of agrochemical and agrophysical indicators of pastures soil cover was noted at the intensive use of pastures.
    Written by: Beybit Nasiyev
    Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
    Date Published: 12/25/2016
    Edition: euroasian-science.ru_25-26.03.2016_3(24)
    Available in: Ebook