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INFLUENCE OF AGROTECHNOLOGY METHODS ON EFFICIENCY AND VALUE OF FORAGE CROPS




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Cultivation of mixed sowings of forage crops is important in the increase of fodder protein harvesting. According to the researches carried out in different countries even such grain forage crops as barley at harvesting for monoforage does not completely meet zootechnical norms of animal nutrition. Their combination with high-proteinaceous components gives the real chance to receive highly nourishing and balanced grain haylage forage.

Long-term scientific and field experience testifies that mixed crops of grain forage crops with leguminous are good raw materials for preparation of high-quality forages with the increased nutritiousness. Barley mixes with chick-pea provide grain haylage forage rich with protein, with sufficient sugar content. At the cultivation of barley and chick-pea mix, protein harvesting depends on harvesting terms. The sufficient content of digestible protein was noted in forages from mixes harvested at the phase of milky-wax ripeness. In haylage, provision of 1 fodder unit with digestible protein was 115 g that is 28,6 g higher than at traditional terms of harvesting. Many researchers suggest to have haylage preparation from mixes of annual crops (barley + chick-pea), to carry out harvesting by direct combining at milky-wax ripeness phase. The output of nutrients from 1 ha decreases in earlier and later terms. Nutritiousness of forage decreases as well. According to three-year data, the harvesting of dry basis at milky-wax ripeness phase of barley and chick-pea mix in comparison with milky ripeness of grain increases from 25,1 to 38,9 c/ha, protein from 371,3 to 494,2 kg/ha [1, р. 52; 2,р.88; 3,р.48; 4,р.267.

The work is performed within the program of grant financing of the Committee of science of MES RK on «Development of Technology on Production of Own Forages for Feeding Complexes and Industrial Type Farms» project.

Field experiments were established for the objectives solution on test field of Zhangir khan WKATU.

Soil of test site is dark-brown heavy loam. The test site soil is characteristic for dry steppe zone of West Kazakhstan on morphological features of genetic horizons of the profile and agrochemical indicators of arable layer.

The area of allotments is 50 m2; the frequency is triple, and arrangement of allotments is random. Agrotechnology of forage crops cultivation is accepted the grades are zoned for West Kazakhstan region. When carrying out field experiments with forage crops accounts, supervision over phenological phases’ appearance and growth of forage crops were carried out by standard techniques.

Ultimate goal of these or those crops cultivation is receiving a qualitative product. Thus not only physical mass of production, but also assessment of their fodder value is of great importance for fodder purpose. As the crops studied by us for the fodder purpose are used differently: for green material, grain haylage and for fodder therefore efficiency was estimated on fodder units and crude protein content.

The option of barley and chick-pea mix during the harvesting at milky ripeness phase of barley appeared the most productive on green material harvesting — 68,05 c/ha. But on dry weight harvesting and fodder units this option conceded to the option of barley and chick-pea mix during the harvesting at milky-wax ripeness phase: dry weight harvesting was 11,77 versus 13,99 c/ha, and fodder units harvesting – 10,71 versus 13,29 c/ha respectively.

The mixed crops of barley and chick-pea for grain forage is more productive than one-specific sowing of barley for the same type of forage: productivity on grain was 9,14 c/ha that is more than at one-specific crops for 2,29 c/ha, and fodder units harvesting ¾ 12,71 c/ha, that exceeded the value of similar indicator for one-specific sowing for 4,01 c/ha.

The efficiency of all studied crops was very low because of long drought in summertime. So productivity of barley grain was 6,85 c/ha. It is equal 8,70 c/ha in fodder units. Output of crude protein was 0,83 hJ. At exchange energy equal 7,58 hJ/ha, the security of fodder units with protein in barley grain was 95,4 g.

Efficiency of mixed sowings of forage crops depends on components of mix and methods of agrotechnology, especially of mineral nutrition modes.

In our researches of 2015, productivity of mixed crops both at harvesting for grain haylage and at harvesting for forage depended on mineral nutrition modes. Thus the highest efficiency of fodder weight was received at the introduction of mineral fertilizers according to the scheme N30P30 autumn + N20P20 at sowing.

Productivity of grain haylage mass of barley and chick-pea mix on control was (without fertilizers) 55,22 c/ha.

At harvesting for forage productivity of mix on control is at the level of 8,83c/ha.

At the introduction of mineral fertilizers only in autumn in a dose of N30P30 the productivity of green haylage material in comparison with control inceased for 8,79 c/ha and was 64,01 c/ha.

At the introduction of mineral fertilizers in spring at the sowing in a dose of N20P20 the productivity of green material in comparison with autumn period of introduction decreased for 4,67 c/ha and was 59,35 c/ha, but in this option harvesting of green material was higher in comparison with control (without fertilizers) for 4,12 c/ha.

The highest harvesting of grain haylage weight was received at the introduction of nitric and phosphoric fertilizers both in autumn in a dose of N30P30 and in spring in a dose of N20P20. In the specified option, the harvesting of green material was maximum and was 71,24 c/ha that is more in comparison with control for 16,02 c/ha.

Similar regularity to fertilizers backgrounds is traced on forage harvesting as well. The increase of grain yield in comparison with control (without fertilizers) is observed at all levels.

The largest grain yield (11,04 c/ha) was received at the introduction of mineral fertilizers according to the scheme N30P30 autumn + N20P20 at the sowing.

Application of fertilizers in autumn and in spring by separate way promoted productivity increase of barley and chick-pea forage in comparison with control for 0,38-1,33c/ha.

References

  1. Bondarenko M.G. Urozhajnost i kormovaya cennost odnoletnih trav v zavisimosti ot srokov poseva // Vestnik s/h nauki Kazahstana. — 1986. — № 11. Р. 51-53.
  2. Vavzhinchak S. Kormlenie molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota na promyshlennyh fermah. ezhdunarodnyj selskohozyajstvennyj zhurnal, № 2, 2013, р. 87-90.
  3. Devyatkin A.I. Vyrashchivanie i otkorm krupnogo rogatogo skota na kompleksah. М.: Rosselhozizdat, 2012. — 184 р.
  4. Nasiev B.N. Selection of high-yielding agrophytocenoses of annual crops for fodder lands of frontier zone / B.N.Nasiev // Life Science Journal. – 2013. — 10(11s). — рр: 267-271.
    INFLUENCE OF AGROTECHNOLOGY METHODS ON EFFICIENCY AND VALUE OF FORAGE CROPS
    For only 5 years in the Republic of Kazakhstan it is planned to construct about 60 feedlots with single keeping of 150 thousand heads or 300 thousand heads a year. Now in feeding complexes young growth is grown up and fattened in the extensive way on unbalanced diets that leads to large expenses of forages and work for gain unit. Therefore one of the important conditions of further increase in beef production is the development of effective technologies of providing feeding complexes and farms of industrial type with own food supply, at economical expenditure of fodder grain. As a result of carried out researches, the data allowing estimating efficiency of fodder crops sowings at different terms of harvest for their use in technologies on own forages production in feeding complexes and industrial type farms in conditions of West Kazakhstan region were obtained.
    Written by: Beybit Nasiyev
    Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
    Date Published: 12/25/2016
    Edition: euroasian-science.ru_25-26.03.2016_3(24)
    Available in: Ebook