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EFFECT OF COMPOST IN LETTUCE GROWTH.




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Introduction

Greece is the third in the world, in olive production country. It is about 3,500 olive mills in operation and produce over 1.5 million tons of liquid waste. The olive pomace is a solid residue, a by-product which after extraction, can be used in agriculture because of its rich content in nutrients. These materials are useful for the production of compost and its use for organic fertilization is considered appropriate.[Zamanidis P.,Israilidis K. and Kavvadias V.] In this research work, we studied the effect of different ratios of compost from pomace of olive mill residues, on the soil and on the cultivation of lettuce.

Material and Methods

The experiment was carried out in unheated greenhouse of Technological Institute ofPeloponnese.Alettuce variety, «Paris Island Cos» has been treated. There used 5 lt containers. In the pilot project involved 5 treatments in seven replications. The proportions of soil and compost that have been studied, are the proportions of 0% (as a control without compost), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% v/v in compost.

The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil used(Table 1) showthat the soil is siltyloamysoil to within suitability threshold values of parameters such as the pH, electrical conductivity, CaCO3, the water capacity and concentration quality nutrients (K, Ca, Mg, Na), except that the organic matter with less than 2% value ( 1.09%).

Table 1.Physico-chemical characteristics of the soil.

Sand %

Silt % Clay % pH Elecricalconructivity

ms/cm

CaCO3

%

Organic matter % Cameq/100g Mg meq/100g K meq/100g Na meq/100g Water holding capacity %
20 55 25 7.9 0.8 9.4 1.1 25.84 1.08 1.00 0.38

40.6

The compost incorporated by mixing in the soil before filling the containers. Soil moisture was maintained at 70% water capacity. In the harvest, theoverground parts (above-ground freshweight,leavesdry weight) were weighed, measured plant height and the number of leaves.

Results and Discussion

In tables 2,3 and 4 is presented the physicochemical characteristics and element concentrations in compost.

The table 5 shows the effect of compost in above-ground part fresh weight, plant height, lettuce leaves number, dry leaves weight and table 6 shows the concentration range (minimum, maximum and averagevalue) of elements in leaf lettuce.

Table2. Physical characteristics of compost.

Αppearance

Οdor Μoisture Size Bulk density Water holding capacity % Νourishing Index
All the materials are dark brown to black. The starting material is no longer visible. The structure is a mixture of agglomerates and humus minutes and average size. Humus from the forest area without any smell or anaerobic ammonia smell. 40-50% (average 45.65) >6mm12,3%,

3 — 6 mm38.5%,

1.5 — 3 mm 36.9%,

<1.5 mm12.3%.

 

600-650 g/l

 

(average64)

248.7 %.

140-175

(average167)

 

Table3. Physicochemical characteristics of compost

C/N

Totalorganic matter

%

Ash

%

Organic Carbon

%

ρΗ

 

CEC

meq/100g

Humic acidscontent

%

 

C/N <25:1

average value

18

80-90

averagevalue

85.8

            12-16

average value 14.2

30 – 42

average value 38.2

7.5-8.5 average value 7.8 >50-60 average value 52

5-15

average value

7.4

Table4. Concentration of chemical elements of compost.

Total N

%

N-NO3

ppm

Total P

ppm

Total

Ca

%

 

Total Cu

ppm

Total

Zn

ppm

Total

Mn

ppm

Total

K

%

Total

Fe

gr/kg

Total

Mg

%

Excgeable

Na

meq/100g

Exchangeable Ca

meq/100g

ExchangeableMg

meq/100g

2.5-3.0 averagevalue2.8

250-350 1600-2200

average value

1780

2.5-5average value

3.3

20- 30 average value

27

40-60 average value

50

100-150

average value 135

2,2-2.8 % average value2.3 1,5-8 average value

2.6

0.4-0.5

average value

0.5

2.76 30.29

5.25

Table 5.Above ground partfreshweight, leaves dry weight, plant height and number lettuce

leaves in relation to the treatments(level of significance 0.01 with comparisons of averages according Duncan).

Treatments

above-ground freshweight (gr) Plantheight

( cm )

Leavesnumber

Leavesdryweight

(gr)

Soil withoutcompost (Control) 30.8a 20.5a 29b 3.3a
Soil+5%compost 48.8c 22.2a 32b 3.6a
Soil+10% compost 54.3d 26.0b 37bc 4.8b
Soil+15% compost 37.8b 22.1a 33b 3.3a
Soil+20% compost 39.3b 22.6a 22a 3.0a

Table 6.Concentration range of nutrients in leaf lettuce.

Concentrationsofnutrients Minimum Maximum Average
Ν ( % ) 1.91 4.20 3.05
P (%) 0.11 0.37 0.24
K ( % ) 1.85 5.70 3.77
Mg( % ) 0.05 0.22 0.13
Ca ( % ) 0.08 0.19 0.13

Figure 1.Interaction of compost concentration in soil and above ground weight of lettuce.

From the presented tables 2, 3 and 4, it seems that the compost used was a dark brown to black color. The structure was a mixture of aggregates and humus minutes and average size, a bulk density of 600-650 g / l and 248.7% of water holding capacity. The ratiowas C / N <25: 1. The cation exchange capacity (CEC)> 50-60 meq /100 g.The humus content ranging 5-15% (Vlyssidis et. al., 2008).The results showed that application of compost significantly favored the production of the above-ground fresh biomass and dry biomass of lettuce leaves. More specifically,the addition of compost had statistically significant and positive effect on above-ground parts weight of lettuce, such as the above-ground fresh weight and dry leaves weight until the treatment, where added 10% in compost. Higher quantities of compost had negative affection (table 5, fig. 1). It must also be noted the interaction (Compost addition) x(Above ground part freshweight) as it is shown in figure 1, confirming the above.

Finally, it was found that the concentration of nutrients in the lettuce leaves did not have any significant correlation with the percentage of the compost, other than the potassium increase which was statistically significant when 20% compost granted.

Conclusion

The results showed that application of compost in soil, which is made frοmpomace of olive mill waste materials, is significantly correlated with the production of lettuce culture. Specifically, the proportion 10% in compost, gives the highest production compared with other combinations. Higher ratios in compost had negative affection. As far as the concentration of nutrients in the lettuce leaves is concerned, it seems that there is no significant correlation with the proportion of the granted compost, except the statistically significant potassium increase which was when 20% in compost granted.

References

1.Zamanidis P., Paschalidis Ch, Chouliaras I. Regeneration seedlings vine hybrids under the influence of nutrients.eurasian union uchenyh. International scientific-practical conference. modern concepts of scientific issledovaniy.chast11.Moskva December 27-30 2014.73-75 с.

2.Zamanidis P., Paschalidis Ch, Chouliaras I. Development seedlings buckthorn by using mineral nutrients eurasian union uchenyh.I nternational scientific-practical conference. modern concepts of scientific issledovaniy.chast11.Moskva December 27-30 2014. p 77-80

.3 Zamanidis P., Paschalidis Ch, Chouliaras I Effect various substrates in regeneration varieties of sea buckthorn eurasian union uchenyh. International scientific-practical conference. modern concepts of scientific issledovaniy.chast11.Moskva December 27-30 2014.p67-70

4 Israilides C.., Vlyssides A., Paschalidis Ch.,Dimirkou A., Papadopoulos P., Kouloumbis P., Iconomou P., Papayannopoulou D., Gouzelouiannis A., Christodoulou V And E. Staurinos.(2000). Ecological management of composted olive stone wooden residue with olive mill water wastes as a soil conditioner “Restoration and protection of the environment” Thassos, p. 561-568.

5.Vlyssides A, Barampouti E., Mai S. (2008) Physical characferistics of olive stone wooden residues: possible bulking material for composting process, biodegradation ,19 (2),209-2014.

6.Kavvadias V., Noula M., Vavoulidou E., Gkrigkis M.and S., Theocharopoulos. (2013) Effect of compost and zeolite in soil fertility on growth and productivity of lettuce .proceedings of 26th scientific conference of eeeo, vol.b, p. 149-153.Kalamata

EFFECT OF COMPOST IN LETTUCE GROWTH.
This paper studies the effect of different doses of making compost pomace olive oil after the extraction, the development of culture lettuce. in vessels, a result of research established that the use of compost in the substrate up to 10% provided the highest yield of biomass lettuce.A big dose of compost has a negative impact on growth and development lettuce.
Written by: Paschalidis CH.,D., Evangelogiannis,D,I
Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
Date Published: 05/16/2017
Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_ 30.04.2017_04(37)
Available in: Ebook