30 Янв

A TYPOLOGICAL VARIETY OF VEGETATION, THE FITOTSENOZ COMPONENTS IN TERRITORIES ADJACENT TO RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENOUS LOADING IN MAKSIMOVK’S VILLAGE OF THE TSELINOGRAD REGION OF AKMOLINSKY AREA




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The mankind which is quickly growing quantitatively began to get more and more intensively into difficult available areas and to involve natural resources in the sphere of the activity. So far under serious anthropogenous the arid territories making about 30% of the area of the terrestrial land which are considered nowadays as the reserve of lands, last for people, appeared a press also. Already today about 80% of the irrigated lands are the share of these areas, 170 million hectares are used under bogharic agriculture and 3,6 billion hectares — as pastures. Here lives about 800 million people or nearly of 20% of a world’s population.

Extent of manifestation and speed of course of various processes of desertification are mainly caused wrong economic activity of the person, not considering external and internal interrelations of the natural components regulating balance of substance and energy in landscapes and, eventually, biological efficiency of lands. Of course, the landscapes of arid and semi-arid territories having quite fragile structure and historically developed centuries-old impact of activity of the person on them are most sensitive to anthropogenous violations.

Among many global problems, perhaps, the problem of desertification is the least known though everyone knows that desert territories differ in extremely hot climate, big deficiency of moisture and quite fragile ecological system, but at the same time these lands have high economic potential. In scientific literature and official documents it is characterized as the last stage of process of slow degradation of environment in a droughty zone and is a product of difficult interaction between social and economic system and natural and anthropogenous factors.

The climatic zone of the dry steppe is located between the droughty steppe and the semi-desert Therefore owing to climatic conditions at the increased anthropogenous influence there are centers of the degraded lands here. Here agriculture is rather developed, in Northern Kazakhstan the big areas are taken away under crops of crops. Therefore load of pastures sharply increased. On degradation

  • agricultural grounds such factors as non-compliance with a pastbishchaoborot, unorganized and unsystematic walking of cattle, vytapyvany soils agricultural and other machinery, salinization, burning of vegetation, unorganized pits, a lack of knowledge and skills of use of new advanced methods of managing and absence of incentives for their application by farmers influence
  • Purpose: Determination of a typological variety of vegetation, components of a fitotsenoz and condition of a soil cover in territories adjacent to rural settlements in the conditions of the dry steppe.
  • Tasks:
  • To carry out route geobotanical monitoring of steppe vegetation and a soil cover, to define dynamics of the main components of a fitotsenoz, biological and economic efficiency of the studied sites, to define extent of degradation of grass ecosystems.
  • To carry out the quantitative analysis of the studied objects.
  • The analysis of a typological variety of vegetation of the studied territory, allocation of the degraded sites and their assessment.

For carrying out researches expeditions were organized. Route geobotanical monitoring of steppe vegetation and a soil cover not of the territory adjacent to the village of Maksimovka is carried out. Researches were conducted in the direction from settlements on 4 main transects (the North, the South, the West, the East). In rural areas often main source of the income is the maintenance of a livestock. The main livestock of cattle is concentrated round settlements and auls that at non-compliance with rules of a pasture conducts to degradation of steppe vegetation. Specifics of the region is that the most part of farmlands round auls and villages is opened and taken away under crops of grain crops. The territory, free from crops, is used for a cattle pasture. Annual unsystematic pasturage of cattle significantly reduces efficiency of pastures in a radius up to 3-5 km from settlements. Trial platforms for studying of vegetation were put in the direction from the village at distance 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 m. On the studied site for studying of a fitotsenoz trial platforms were put 10х10 m in size (100 sq.m), within this area registration platforms of 50 X 50 cm in size, not less than in 4 povtornostyakh were defined. The choice of registration platforms was carried out by method of random numbers.

Objects of researches are the agricultural natural grounds adjacent to the village of Maksimovka located in a subband of the dry steppe of the Tselinograd region of Akmolinsky area. Researches were conducted in 2013 in the territory of the village of Maksimovka. The settlement is in a climatic zone of the dry steppe. For carrying out researches expeditions were organized. Researches were conducted in the direction from settlements on 4 main transects

(North, South, West, East). On separate transects in view of the objective reasons the account wasn’t carried out. In the Tselinograd area in the territory of the village of Maksimovka the account in the northern direction was carried out to distance of 500 m as forest plantations of Zhasyl Aimak LLP in the southern direction to 1500m as the river Ishim flows further settled down further, at once behind the river arable lands of country farms settle down, round the territory Vozdvizhenka sat down bending around it the river Ishim flows, and behind it fields of crops are located and therefore the account in the northern direction was carried out to a point of 1500 m, geographical coordinates of the trial platforms put for carrying out the account and sampling are specified In table 1. Geographical coordinates of the trial platforms put for carrying out the account and sampling [3] are specified in table 1.

For carrying out researches on the accounting of steppe vegetation the method of variable squares was used. On the studied sites for studying of a fitotsenoz trial platforms of 10х10 m in size (100 sq.m) were put, within this area registration platforms of 25 X 25 cm in size were defined. The total area of the account makes not less than 1 sq.m. The choice of registration platforms was carried out by method of random numbers. Trial platforms for studying of vegetation were put in the direction from the village at distance 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 m.

During researches the following indicators were defined.

  1. The specific structure of a fitotsenoz — was defined as a result of analysis of samples of steppe vegetation, families and species of steppe herbs were defined.
  2. The quantity of plants — is defined by calculation of plants on variable platforms. I was determined total of plants and quantity of plants by types. Feature of the territory of the village of Maksimovka of the Tselinograd area is the increased anthropogenous influence by a pasture of cattle and technogenic character, especially from the West and East side as from East side the village of Kazhimukan is located in 5 km from the village and a pasture of cattle the obikh of settlements is imposed at each other. From South side the pasture of cattle extends to 1500 m as the river Ishim flows further, with northern the cattle doesn’t vypasatsya at all.

The northern direction of the settlement of Maksimovk was studied at distance only to 500 m, from the South the village is washed by the river Ishim, behind the river the earth is used under an arable land. Fitotsenoz is presented by 6 species of the plants relating to 3 families, myatlikovy (Agropyron répens, Festúca sulcata, Bromopsis inermis), slozhnotsvetny (Artemísia absínthium, Artemisia austrica), cabbage (Sisymbrium officinale). The quantity of plants on a trial platform was made by 103 pieces/sq.m (table 11). The greatest number of plants was revealed at a type of Artemisia absínthium (55 plants), plants of family had the smallest number of representatives cabbage. On the studied district signs of degradation of a vegetable cover, vegetation small are obviously noticeable, there are bald spots of the bared grounds. Efficiency of phytomass of the northern direction averaged 24,8 g/m2. Average number of phytoweight the greatest in comparison with other transects, as big weight a plant

given transsect presents to Agropyron répens, Artemísia absínthium and Festúca sulcata. 96,6% of phytoweight fall to their share.

The western direction is presented, 21 species of the plants relating to 7 families and a sort, slozhnotsvetny (Artemísia absínthium, Artemisiaaustrica, Artemisiascoparia, Felago arvensis, Sónchus arvénsis), myatlikovy (Festúca sulcata, Roa pratensis, Agropyron répens, Agropyron cristatum, Festuca pratensis, Psathyrostachys juncea), marevy (Ceratocarpus arenarius, Chenopodium album, Salicornia perennans) cabbage (Lepidiumruderale, Alýssumdesertórum, Descurainia Sofia), Lichenes vyyunkovy (Convolvulusarvensis), bean (Medicágo sativa, Glycyrrhiza glabra) marenovy (Galium verum). Edifikatorami are типчак Festucasulcata Artemisiaaustriaca wormwood, this two species of a plant practically meet on all trial platforms. In community of live organisms plays Chenopodium album large role here, representatives of this look meet more than others (183 copies). The total of the revealed plants of edifikator of Festucasulcata and Artemisiaaustriaca made respectively 25 and 36 plants. The quantity of plants on each trial platform averaged 198,3 pieces/sq.m, on trial platforms biological diversity was represented on average by 3-5 species of plants.

The southern direction to the studied territory is presented by 18 species of the plants relating to 9 families, myatlikovy (Agropyron cristatum, Festúca sulcata, Bromopsis inermis, Elymus arenarius, Roa to pratensis), slozhnotsvetny (Artemísia absínthium, Artemisia austrica), bean (Medicágo sativa), grechishny (Polýgonum aviculare) cabbage (Lepidium ruderale, Thláspi arvénse, Alýssum desertórum) vyyunkovy (Convolvulus arvensis) marevy (Kochiaprostrata, Ceratocarpusarenarius, Chenopodium album), podorozhnikovy (Plantágo major), Lichenes. Edifikatorami are Artemisia absínthium (65 plants), this species of plants is present on all trial platforms. The quantity of plants on each trial platform averaged 168 pieces/sq.m. The greatest number of plants was revealed at a type of Artemisia absínthium (65 plants), plants of family had the smallest number of representatives bean. The maximum quantity of plants (215 plants/sq.m) was revealed on a trial platform of 500 m. Further in process of removal from the settlement on a trial platform of 1000 m the quantity of plants falls to 22 and then on distances 1500 rises to 201 again and further the quantity of plants sharply decreases.

Efficiency of phytomass of the southern direction, averaged 6,0 g/m2. As the main dominants here Artemisia austriaca, Festuca sulcata already act, to fall to their share 47,8% of phytoweight. This direction at distance 1000 and 1500m, is often used by local population for a cattle pasture to the river.

East direction to the studied territory is presented by 24 species of the plants relating to 9 families and a sort, myatlikovy (Festúcasulcata, Agropýron cristatum, Leymus ramosus, Stipa lessingiana, Lolium perenne, Elymus arenarius), slozhnotsvetny (Artemisia absínthium, Artemisia austrica, Artemisia scoparia, Filago arvensis), grechishny (Polýgonum aviculare), marevy (Kochia prostrata, Ceratocarpus arenarius), bean (Medicágo sativa, Lótus corniculátus), podorozhnikovy (Plantágo major), Lichenes (lichen) zarazikhovy (Orobanche lutea), cabbage (Sisymbrium Loeselii, Lepidium ruderale, Barbarea vulgaris, Thláspi arvénse, Brassica campestris, Alýssum desertórum). Edifikatorami are Festucasulcata, Artemisia austriaca these species of plants are present on all trial platforms. The quantity of plants on each trial platform averaged 133 pieces/sq.m. The greatest number of plants was revealed at a type of Felago arvensis (the 111th plant), types of Kochia prostrata (01), SisymbriumLoeselii(1), Medicágo sativa (1), Lolium perenne (1), Alýssum desertórum (1) had the smallest number of representatives. If on the trial platforms located closer to the village фитоценоз it was formed of 2-3 types, at distance of 2000-2500 m the quantity of the types presented in a fitotsenoza reaches to 9.

Efficiency of phytomass of east direction averaged 8,3 g/m2. Practically presence at a fitotsenoza of Festúca sulcata, Agropýron cristatum, Artemisia absínthium at a fitotsenoza is everywhere noted their mass fraction makes 33,3%. Universal presence of Agropýron cristatum (житняк), is explained by that earlier long-term herbs were obviously seeded here and about a vremeniye are thrown. It should be noted in this direction in a fitotsenoza the main representative dominants of steppe vegetation, such as типчак remained. Considering that, the essential share in a fitotsenoza is occupied also by a wormwood, drain of vegetation happens regularly here. The smallest phytoweight (68,4 g/m2) was revealed in a point of supervision of 3000 m, the vegetation at this distance is exposed to intensive drain by a livestock of local population.

 

Table 1 – Specific structure, quantity and phytomass of plants in the territory of the village of Maksimovka (2013), pieces/sq.m/g/sq.m *

Plants

Distance from the settlement, m

In total

  500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000  
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

North

Agropyron répens 26

121,4

          26

121,4

Artemísia absínthium 55

15,4

          55

15,4

Festúca sulcata 14

7,8

          14

7,8

Bromopsis inermis 2

3,3

          2

3,3

Sisymbrium officinale 1

0,3

          1

0,3

Artemisia austrica 5

0,5

          5

0,5

In total 103

595,6

          103

595,6

Average 20,6

99,2

          20,6

99,2

South

Artemisia  absínthium 74

106,7

21

17,4

100

4,6

      195

128,7

Polýgonum aviculare 91

6,1

10

0,1

        101,0

6,2

Agropyron cristatum 5

5,0

          5

5,0

Convolvulus arvensis 1

0,1

          1

0,1

Kochia prostrata 8

3,9

          8

3,9

Festúca sulcata 3

3,3

2

0,1

9

0,55

      14,0

5,0

Medicágo sativa 1

7,4

          1

7,4

Ceratocarpus arenarius 23

7,5

          23

7,5

Lepidium ruderale 5

0,4

          5

0,4

Chenopodium album 3

0,8

10

0,5

        13

1,3

Thláspi arvénse 1

0,8

          1

0,8

Plantágo major   5

3,6

2

2,1

      7

5,8

Lichenes   14

0,3

12

4,4

      26

4,7

Elymus arenarius   25

8,5

76

21,5

      101,0

30,0

Alýssum desertórum   1

5,3

        1

5,3

Рoa pratensis     2

0,95

      2

0,95

In total 215

142,4

88

35,9

201

34,3

      504

212,4

Average 19,5

12,9

11

4,4

33,5

5,7

      21,3

23

Восток

Festúca sulcata 42

18,1

2

3,4

5

11,5

15

7,6

11

8,05

25

2,4

99,6

51

Agropýron cristatum 7

25,8

16

38,8

23

72,2

1

3,0

12

6,5

36

27,6

94,8

174

Artemisia absínthium 22

13,7

13

12

55

21,4

13

33,9

57

19,85

26

34,1

186

135

Kochia prostrata 1

4,2

          1

4,2

Leymus ramosus 3

13,7

          3

13,7

Artemisia austrica 18

10,3

22

8,7

1

7,3

27

1,7

15

1,3

  83

35

Ceratocarpusarenarius 14

0,5

          14

0,5

Artemisia scoparia   20

3,6

  1

0,1

    21

3,7

Lichenes (лишайник)   49

21,3

3

0,1

      52

21,4

Orobanche lutea   6

3,8

2

0,8

      8

4,6

SisymbriumLoeselii   1

11,8

        1

11,8

Lepidium ruderale     4

0,9

2

0,8

    6

1,7

Polýgonum aviculare     30

0,2

19

0,8

    49

1,0

Barbarea vulgaris     2

2,5

      2

2,5

Felagoarvensis       111

1,9

    111

1,9

Medicágo sativa       1

38,8

    1

38,8

Plantágo major         39

16,6

6

16,6

45,0

33,2

Lótus corniculátus         10

0,7

  10

0,7

Stipa lessingiana         2

4,3

  2

4,3

Thláspi arvénse         1

2,0

  1

2,0

Lolium perenne         1

0,5

  1

0,5

Brassica campestris         1

11,6

  1

11,6

Elymus arenarius           3

1,6

3

1,6

Alýssum desertórum           1

0,3

1

0,3

In total 108

113,3

129

105,3

125

117,9

190

93,3

149

73,0

97

68,4

798

571,2

Average 18

16,1

16,1

11,7

13,8

13,1

21,1

10,3

14,9

7,3

19,4

13,7

17,2

12,0

Запад

Artemísia absínthium 41

57,0

17

18,8

  78

49,3

23

34,3

57

33,9

216

193

Festúca sulcata 27

8,1

26

5,4

  12

3,7

34

1,5

  98,8

19,2

Poa pratensis 20

1,1

    4     20

1,1

Ceratocarpus arenarius 24

0,5

120

0,8

        144

1,3

Agropyron répens 1

0,4

    21

8,9

    22

9,3

Lepidium ruderale 3

0,2

          3

0,2

Agropyron cristatum   15

17,7

2

0,3

4

0,55

31

30,4

21

28,4

73

64,5

Lichenes   16

0,2

        16

0,2

Artemisia austrica   32

15,5

  30

18,2

46

14,4

  108

46,8

Artemisia scoparia   15

9,7

    3

2,1

  18

11,8

Chenopodium album   2

17,9

365

67,1

      367

85

Alýssumdesertórum   1

1,65

        1

1,65

Convolvulus arvensis     1

0,2

2

0,1

11

0,1

14

0,1

28

0,5

Salicornia perennans     28

1

      28

1

Felagoarvensis       7

1,4

    7

1,4

Descurainia Sofia       1

0,3

    1

0,3

Festuca pratensis       10

0,9

    10

0,9

Medicágo sativa       1

0,9

  3

10,6

4

11,5

Convolvulus arvensis           12

5,7

12

5,7

Glycyrrhiza glabra         1

1,2

  1

1,2

Galium verum         1

0,2

4

0,2

5,0

0,4

Psathyrostachys juncea           1

1,1

1

1,1

In total 116

68,2

244

87,1

396

71,4

170

86,2

150

87,2

114

93,3

1189,8

493,2

Average 23

9,7

27,1

10,9

99

14,2

17

7,8

18,7

10,9

16,2

13,3

33,5

11,3

* In numerator quantity of plants of piece/sq.m, in a denominator the mass of plants of g/m2

Conclusion

Thus in the territory of the settlement of Maksimovk 32 species of plants, from 11 families are revealed. As Edifikatorami mainly Festuca sulcata, Artemisia austriaca act. The average quantity of plants made from 103 pieces/sq.m in East and to 198,3 pieces/sq.m the southern direction. In the territories adjacent to the village of Maksimovka showed researches of phytoweight, the transect strongly varies formation of biomass on various directions. In the conditions of the increased anthropogenous influence phytoweight southern (6,0 g/m2) the transect the smallest, in the conditions of a systematic pasture and other anthropogenous influence in the western and east directions efficiency of phytoweight averaged respectively 6,3 and 8,3 g/m2, and in the conditions of moderate anthropogenous influence on фитоценоз in the northern direction near the settlement on average efficiency of phytoweight was maximum and made 24,8 g/m2

List of references

1 The program for fight against desertification in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2015: утв. On January 24, 2005//www .unccd.int/ActionProgrammes/kazakstan-rus2005.pdf.

2 Shamsutdinov Z.Sh. and Shamsutdinov N. Z. Methods of ecological restoration of arid ecosystems in regions of pasturable animal husbandry//the Steppe bulletin.-2002. — No. 11. — Page 23-29.

3 Suvorova V. V., Voronov I.N.Botanik with fundamentals of geobotany. Leningrad. — 1979. Page 508-515.

A TYPOLOGICAL VARIETY OF VEGETATION, THE FITOTSENOZ COMPONENTS IN TERRITORIES ADJACENT TO RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENOUS LOADING IN MAKSIMOVK'S VILLAGE OF THE TSELINOGRAD REGION OF AKMOLINSKY AREA
Written by: Massenov Kairat, Amralin Askar, Hamitov Nurmuhambet
Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
Date Published: 05/22/2017
Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_ 30.01.2015_01(10)
Available in: Ebook