The main content of the science language is the terminology. It is examined in works of different content: logical, linguistic and scientific. Term features define the vocabulary of the language of science.
Language training at institutions should be based on the lexical minimum in the subject area in the volume necessary for work with technical texts in the process of mastering skills of professional communication [1, p. 201]. In this regard, the course of study of the Russian language in the sphere of agriculture should be professionally and communicatively oriented and connected in special disciplines. The students should master skills of communication in professional, business, scientific spheres taking into account the peculiarities of professional thinking . The study of the process of their formation is an important problem and requires making a decision.
Nowadays the development of theoretical concepts is achieved hard in higher education. The level of development depends primarily on the formation of awareness of verbal signs term features of the theoretical categories and on the volume, in which the conceptual and terminological system of a particular subject area is built in the minds of the student.
Development of didactical material for serving to theoretical component in the course of studying the Russian language is actual. V. V. Golubkov wrote that «the formation of … the basis of concepts in the field of a particular discipline that aims to give them a system of scientific knowledge is one of the main objectives of our school. But this work on the formation of concepts, as well as all other types of lessons should be delivered in close connection with common tasks. Otherwise, it risks to become an empty formalism. Such a danger threatens also a teacher … if only he will consider the formation of … concepts … as something self-contained, as a special section of the work standing next to … development of speech» [3, p. 42]. Adherence to this principle can lead a teacher to the development of theoretical concepts outside the sistem relations with others, that means in isolation from them. The teacher needs to create in the minds of students a system of concepts. L. S. Vygotsky wrote that «the term may acquire awareness and randomness only in the system» [3, p. 43]. This means that the student will be able easily to handle with the concept in different contexts.
Different ways of organizing learning activities of students can contribute to the the formation of term features in the professional thinking in the aspect of scientific style. The selection and organization of scientific style language means should correspond to the communicative needs of students, contribute to their gradual solution of communicative tasks . One of the main conditions of understanding the meaning of terminological vocabulary is understanding of the importance of terminology, since it carries the greatest information load .
All subsystems of the language including the terminology interact with each other. The completion of terminological composition with the help of common vocabulary shows that the terminology is a subject to the general language laws. This means that teaching specific terminology may be based on the experience with common vocabulary [6, p. 351].
In order for the students in their future professional activity were able to explain the structure and functioning of equipment, they need a vocabulary that they would be able to distinguish when they compare those even close in meaning [7, p. 5]. As a rule, not all textbooks are provided with glossaries and dictionaries. Dictionaries of terms exist for structuring scientific knowledge. There has been a lack of textbooks in agriculture at the present time. Those that exist do not reflect the current status of the terminology of a given region [8, p. 211]. A solution to this problem could be the creation of a new dictionary-thesaurus for agricultural machinery, which will serve the following subjects: «Agricultural machines», «Technology of agricultural production» and can be used for the training of bachelors in direction of training «Agroengineering».
For dictionaries there is ongoing growth of new concepts associated with the development of technology in this field [9, p. 29]. Often in the learning dictionaries the information can be presented in a brief form, without a system of relations between terms and examples of functioning in the texts [10, p. 3]. In the case of thesaurus the knowledge description is segmented and structured so that it is divided into separate groups of concepts linked together by certain relations [11, p. 358]. Relationships can be hierarchical, equivalent and associative.
As noted N. Yu. Rusova, the function of dictionaries-thesaurus is «ordering the content substance of the language in conceptual-verbal form» [12, p. 29]. Unlike alphabetical dictionaries, dictionaries-thesauruses are built on the semantic proximity [13, p. 274]. With their help you can find not only a definition for the searched word but also its synonyms and antonyms, species and generic concepts, the concept denoting the whole and a part, that will lead to relief of work with the terms [14, p. 340].
The selection of vocabulary is going due to the work programme of the disciplines «Agricultural machines», «Technology of agricultural production», the basic and additional educational literature. Actual terminology is selected that is repeated in several sources. The task of the dictionary and thesaurus is a reflection of the present state of agricultural terminology.
The dictionary represents the following structure:
1) conceptual map of the subject area; 2) the terminological categories; 3) systematic index of terms; 4) alphabetical index of terms.
In the conceptual map reflects «the links between the main objects, subjects and processes relevant to the subject area [9, p. 32]. For the dictionary selects the most significant lexical units.
Headings in the terminological categories represent disjoint set of terms:
- Machines, mechanisms, instruments, units, devices, apparatuses.
- Working bodies.
- Processes, operations, technology.
- Buildings for special purposes.
In the systematic index, you can define hierarchical paradigmatic relationships between terms:
- Machines, mechanisms, instruments, units, devices, apparatuses.
0 1 2 3
*machine for organic fertilizers
spreaders for entering loose fertilizers
We choose the relationship «a kind – a type» and «the whole – a part» for entries in the alphabetic list of terms instead of the relations «above – below», which are often used for the specific sphere. This type simplifies the work of students with a thesaurus and helps to find hierarchy.
The relationship «a kind – a type» is going due to addition of term element to the generic concept, for example:
Culture — leguminous culture / grain culture / oil culture / spiked culture / cereal culture
There is a large number of type concepts in this area.
Part of the terminological units can be derived from combinations of terms. Examples include phrases such as planting machine, seeding machine. For technical terms agricultural sector is characterized by a small number of synonyms (a grinding device – a crushing device – a chopper; a zero tillage – a no-till technology; an assembly – a connecting node; a combine harvester — a combine machine – ENEA-thresher; a combine harvester – a header combine harvester). Synonymy leads to the necessity of choosing a certain terminological choices. The exactness and narrow focus of the terms leads to the simplification of their application in professional activity.
A thesaurus can serve as the best means of conceptual and terminological modeling for didactic purposes. In this type of dictionary words are arranged in semantic proximity. The purpose of a thesaurus is that they make easier to find linguistic means for expressing concepts. While «in a regular dictionary we can find the word or a few words with the help of the meaning that is written in a certain way» [3, pp. 38-39]. «A thesaurus is a lexical tool of information and search systems. It consists of controlled but modifiable vocabulary of terms between which there are specified semantic links. This dictionary comprehensively covers some specific area of knowledge represented by a list of descriptors (key terms) and non-descriptors (auxiliary terms) arranged in a systematic and alphabetical principles and containing instructions on the semantic relationships between them of a hierarchical («a kind – a type») and non-hierarchical type» [3, p. 39].
- Rusova N. Yu. Didactic material: the theory and practice of modeling : Monograph. – Nizhny Novgorod : Publishing house of NSPU, 2002. – 220 pp.
- Lukoyanova T. V. Causes of the diversity of definitions of concept «term» // Scientific notes. Electronic scientific journal of Kursk State University. 2014. №. 2 (30).
- Wikipedia [Electronic resource]. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki (reference date: 17.12.2015).
- Kovyazina M. A. Functional model of bilingual environmental dictionary-thesaurus : dis. – dissertation… of candidate of philological sciences. Sciences: 10.02.21 / M. A. Kovyazina. Tyumen: Publishing House of TSU, 2006. 374.
- Lukashevich N. V., Saleh, A. D. Knowledge of epresentation in automatic text processing // STI. Ser. 1997. Vol. 2. P. 1-6.
- Mikhalev E. V., Maletina L. V. Thesaurus approach to develop a dictionary // Modern problems of science and education. 2014. No.. 3. P. 248.
- Zenkin C. Test by means of thesaurus (Notes on the theory, 10) // New literature review. 2005. № 72. P. 29.
- Rusova N. Yu. From allegory to lamb : the Terminological dictionary-thesaurus for literary criticism. M. : Flinta : Nauka, 2004. 304 p.
- Kovyazina M. A. Thesaurus description of ecological system terms // Unity of systematic and functional analysis of linguistic units: materials of the international. scientific. conf. (Belgorod, 11-13 apr. 2006) : In 2 p. Belgorod : Publishing House of BSU, 2006. Ed. 9. C. P. P. 358-362.)
- Rusova N. Yu. Didactic modeling for the subject area «Philology»: a monograph / N. Yu. Rusova. Nizhny Novgorod : NSPU by name K. Minin, 2013. 88 p.
- Boikov V. N., Pilshikov I. A. Semantic model of «Thesaurus in philology» in the informational and analytical system // Materials of scientific conference «Internet and modern society». 2013. P. 273-279.
- Lukashevich N. V., Dobrov B. V., Chuiko D. S. Selection of phrases for the dictionary of automatic word processing // Computer linguistics and intellectual technologies. Tr. International conference «Dialogue». 2008. P. 339-344.
13.Agricultural dictionary [Electronic resource]. URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/agriculture (reference date: 18.12.2015).
- A dictionary of agricultural engineering in six languages. Poznan : Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 2001. 992 рр.
- Rusova N. Yu. Didakticheskiy material: teoriya i praktika modelirovaniya : Monographiya. – Nizhny Novgorod : Izd-vo NGPU, 2002. – 220 s.
- Lukoyanova Т. V. Prichiny raznoobraziya opredeleniy ponyatiya «termin» (Causes of the diversity of definitions of concept «term») // Uchenye zapiski. Elektronniy nauchniy zhurnal Kurskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2014. №. 2 (30).
- Wikipedia [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki (data obrashcheniya: 17.12.2015).
- Kovyazina М. А. Funktsionalnaya model dvuyazychnogo ekologicheskogo slovarya-tezaurusа (Functional model of bilingual dictionary-thesaurus) : dis. – dissertatsiya… kandidata filol. nauk: 10.02.21 / М. А. Kovyazinа. Tyumen: izd-vo TyumGU, 2006. 374 s.
- Lukashevich N. V., Saliy А. D. Predstavlenie znaniy v sisteme avtomaticheskoy obrabotki tekstov (Knowledge of representation in automatic text processing) // NTI. Ser. 1997. Т. 2. S. 1–6.
- Mihalevа Е. V., Maletina L. V. Tezaurusniy podhod k razrabotke uchebnogo slovarya (Thesaurus approach to develop a dictionary) // Sovremennye problemy nauki I obrazovaniya. 2014. №. 3. S. 248.
- Zenkin S. Ispytanie tezaurusom (Zametki o teorii, 10) (Test by means of thesaurus (Notes on the theory, 10)) // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 2005. №. 72. S. 29.
- Rusova N. Yu. Ot allegorii do yamba : Terminologicheskiy slovar-tezaurus po literaturovedeniyu (From allegory to lamb : the Terminological dictionary-thesaurus for literary criticism). М. : Flintа : Naukа, 2004. 304 s.
- Kovyazina М. А. Tazaurusnoe opisanie ekologicheskoy terminosistemy // Edinstvo sistemnogo i funktsionalnogo analiza yazykovyh edinits : materialy Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. (Thesaurus description of ecological system terms) (Belgorod, 11–13 апр. 2006 г.) : V 2 ch. Belgorod : Izdatelstvo BelGU, 2006. Vyp. 9. Ch. P. S. 358–362.)
- Rusova N. Yu. Didakticheskoe modelirovanie dlya predmetnoy oblasti «Filologiya» (Didactic modeling for the subject area «Philology») : monografia / N. Yu. Rusova. Nizhny Novgorod : NGPU im. К. Мininа, 2013. 88 s.
- Boikov V. N., Pilshchikov I. А. Semanticheskaya model «Tezaurusa po poetologii» v sostave informatsionno-analiticheskoy sistemy (Semantic model of «Thesaurus in philology» in the informational and analytical system) // Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii «Internet I sovremennoe obshchestvo». 2013. S. 273–279.
- Lukashevich N. V., Dobrov B. V., Chuiko D. S. Otbor slovosochetaniy dlya slovarya sistemy avtomaticheskoy obrabotki tekstov (Selection of phrases for the dictionary of automatic word processing) // Kompyuternaya lingvistikа i intellektualnye tehnologii. Тr. Mazhdunarodnoy konferentsii «Dialog». 2008. S. 339–344.
- Selskohozyaystvenniy slovar-spravochnik (Agricultural dictionary) [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/agriculture (data obrashcheniya: 18.12.2015).
- A dictionary of agricultural engineering in six languages. Poznan : Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 2001. 992 рр.TERM FEATURES OF SPEECH IN PROFESSIONAL SPHEREBackground: to analyze the terminological vocabulary as a collection of special items in a such a sphere as agriculture functioning in the sphere of professional communication. Students need a set of terms to distinguish them when comparing even close ones in the meaning and to explain the structure and functioning of technics in their future professional activity. As a rule, not all student’s books are provided with glossaries and dictionaries. The solution of this problem can be in building a new agricultural dictionary-thesaurus. Methods: component analysis which consists of a sequential comparison of the terms with their dictionary definitions. Due to the total number of elements in dictionary definitions of two terms it can be judged on their degree of relatedness. Dictionary definitions (in explanatory dictionaries) is a decomposition of the meaning of the term in its semantic components. Terms denoting specific objects are explained through the terms with more general meaning and so on. The result is more general concepts, the so-called elementary concepts. Result: terminological lexicon of sphere «Agriculture» is analysed, the dictionary-thesaurus is prepared which consists of terms categories, systematic, lexical and semantic pointers of terms and conceptual maps of the subject area. For the first time in the article agricultural thesaurus is discussed which is suitable for studying by the students of the technical profile within the disciplines «Agricultural machinery» and «Technology of agricultural production». Conclusion: the main statements and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activities for discussing issues about the nature of agricultural terminology.Written by: Ilicheva Olga Aleksandrovna, Ignatieva Natalia NikolaevnaPublished by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНАDate Published: 12/19/2016Edition: euroasia-science_28.04.2016_4(25)Available in: Ebook