There are a lot of problems in the modern world: ecological problems connected to the global warming, production and consumption problems, industry affairs coming from the changes in technological modes and causing economic crises, etc. A prominent place in this list is taken by the issues concerning the development and safety arrangement of the Arctic zone and preservation of the low-numbered indigenous peoples of the North. The development perspectives of the Northern economy constitute the shaping factor of the country development as they are connected to the realization of the grandest state projects on extraction and commercial exploitation of natural resources, e. g. Shtokmanov gas condensate field and others.
Nature is life environment for the indigenous peoples of our country and it insures their vital activity. But because of the industrial development, a great number of indigenous representatives have started to experience numerous problems such as a low level of living, desire to save their mother tongue, etc.
Nowadays there are 40 indigenous peoples in the Russian Federation, the total number of which figures up to 270 000 , and each of these peoples numbers less than 50000. They live on the territories which used to belong to their ancestors and preserve the traditional mode of life, traditional economic management and crafts and, thus, they consider themselves to be an independent ethnos.
The article 72 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation stipulates providing protection of traditional living habitat and traditional way of life of small ethnic communities .
The transition to the sustainable economic and social development of the low-numbered indigenous peoples (the consolidation of national self-administration, employment and self-employment, traditional life comforts, etc.) means realization of the projects which concern the development of economic structure of the territories, where the low-numbered indigenous peoples live, and accelerated development of the social service sector (education, health service, culture).
It is worth mentioning that the Conception of economic and social development of the low-numbered indigenous peoples of the North stipulates:
- organization of works on modernization of traditional activities of low-numbered indigenous peoples, first of all, introduction of modern processes and technologies in traditional economic sectors and development of advanced oil refining;
- building and reconstruction of municipal facilities, including improvement of the territories and economic activities of the indigenous population;
- development of non-traditional power supply sources and heat supply sources, as well as autonomous systems of sewage treatment;
- realization of environmental renovations, including development of resource base of traditional economic sectors, development of reindeer breeding, building of fish breeding plants.
According to the Strategic Action Programme for Protection of Environment in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation, prepared under the auspices of the UN Environment Programme project, the main factors which influence the state of the environment are :
— existence of a great number of local «hot zones» due to the past and present economic activities;
— growing environmental pollution and degradation of fragile Arctic ecosystems under conditions of developing human impact including transboundary pollutants transport;
— extreme slowness of restoration processes in disturbed ecosystems of the Arctic region;
— deterioration of the habitat of the indigenous population, including low-numbered peoples;
— high ecological risks of development of the natural resources and territories which are difficult of access, transportation, realization of high-technology projects and energy-demanding projects;
— growth of technology-related risks and damage under conditions of the appearance and development of dangerous hydrometeorological, ice-related unfavorable natural processes, frozen soil problems connected to climate changes.
«Russia’s Strategy for Developing the Arctic Region and the Provision of National Security until 2020» approved in 2013 defines the mechanisms, means and ways of achieving strategic aims and priorities of sustainable development of the Arctic zone as well as the main aims of the governmental politics which will lead to the realization of that. Among the main factors which influence the social and economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation we can mention :
— extreme natural and climatic conditions, including low air temperatures, strong winds and ice sheet in the Arctic seas;
— local character of economic development of the territories and low density of population;
— remoteness from main industrial centers, high resource intensity and dependence of life and economic activities on the delivery of food, fuel material and essential goods from other regions of Russia;
— low sustainability of ecosystems which determine the biological balance and climate on the Earth as well as their dependence on human activities.
This document points out the necessity of development of the following spheres in this region :
— science and technologies;
— modern information and telecommunication infrastructure;
— ecological safety;
— international cooperation in the Arctic, etc.
For instance, we can mention «The Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway in the Area of Environmental Protection» that has been in force since 1992. It outlines the necessity of finding solutions to ecological problems and rational utilization of natural resources according to the principle of sustainable development in accordance with the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Charter of Paris for a new Europe and other CSCE documents corresponding to «Declaration on the Protection of Arctic Environment» .
The main goal of the state policy in the Arctic region concerns the issues connected to environmental safety and safe renovation of ecological complex in this region by rational development of the sectors and location of production units which may cause damage to environment, as well as providing favorable life conditions for low-numbered indigenous peoples of the North.
- The concept of the Federal Target Program «Economic and social development of indigenous population of the North, Siberia and the Far East till 2015»: the decree of the RF government of 21 November 2007, № 1661 [online]. Available from: http://www.consultant.ru/document/.
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation of 12 December 1993, art. 72 [online]. Available from: http://www.consultant.ru/document/.
- UN Environmental Programme Diagnostic Analysis of the Environmental Status of the Russian Arctic. Moscow, 2011.
- Russian Strategy of the Development of the Arctic Zone and the Provision of National Security until 2020 (adopted by the President of the Russian Federation on February 8, 2013, № Pr-232) [online]. Available from: http://www.consultant.ru/document/.
- The Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway in the Area of Environmental Protection»: the decree of 3 August 1992, № 531 [online]. Available from: http://www.consultant.ru/document/.
- The Government Decree of Arkhangelsk Region of 14 September 2010, № 451: «Cooperation Agreement between Arkhangelsk Region Government and Tromsø, Kingdom of Norway» [online]. Available from: http://www.consultant.ru/document/.TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF THE ARCTIC ZONE DEVELOPMENT AND PRESERVATION OF INDIGENEOUS NORTHERN POPULATIONWritten by: Pirtskhalava Nana, Shtaborov DmitryPublished by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНАDate Published: 05/20/2017Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_ 30.01.2015_01(10)Available in: Ebook