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Dynamics of the newly discovered malignant diseases of the population in the district of Plovdiv




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Introduction:

The malignant diseases are a serious problem of our contemporary society. They are the second leading cause of death in the developed countries. There is an upward trend of death caused by cancer worldwide.(1;3) The prognostication shows that in 2030 about 12 million people would die from this insidious disease.(4;7) Statistics marks a sharp increase in the morbidity rate and decrease in the age of people suffering from cancer. The malignant diseases cause much suffering, loss of working capacity and are a heavy economic burden for the society, the individual and the family.(5;9) They require increased need of medical services and often have a lethal exit. Almost 80% of the malignant diseases are caused by the environmental factors, the lifestyle of the people, habits and customs. The frequency of distribution of malignant diseases in Bulgaria is constantly increasing.(8;12) Cancer is a tragedy but the experts point out that now the causes of cancer are well-known and this enables prevention of around one third of the new cases.(16) With the increase in the duration of life and age of the people, the number of patients with cancer is expected to increase. The good news is that about 40% of the cancer diseases are potentionally preventable.(23)

Objective: The objective of the present article is to study the morbidity rate of malignant new formations with different locations in the body in the population of the district of Plovdiv.

Materials and methods:

Subject of observation is Plovdiv district. The logical unit is the population of Plovdiv. The study is retrospective for a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014 inclusive. Quantitative and qualitative indices have been used for the analysis. The input information has been derived from the annual reports of the Ministry of Health and the Regional Health Inspectorate in Plovdiv. The statistical processing of the collected input information has been performed with the help of the statistical package SPSS version 19 and MicrosoftExcel.

Results and discussion:

Plovdiv district is located in the central part of Southern Bulgaria and occupies

5972,9 sq.m., equal to 5.4% of the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria. It is one of the regions most favoured by nature. The district has a convenient transportation geographic position, high natural, economic and human potential, favourable bio-climatic resource, protected territories, highly productive cultivated land, thermal waters, and very rich cultural heritage. The favourable geographic location of the district is complemented by the availability of established infrastructure for easier access. The territory of the district covers the southern Balkan slopes, the field of Pazardzhik-Plovdiv, the forest areas of the Sredna Gora and the northern part of the Rhodope, mountain rivers and valleys. In a climatic aspect the region is not uniform – in the plain parts it is transitory-continental and in the highest parts – mountainous.

The population of Plovdiv district as of 31 December 2014 is 675 586 people and constitutes 9.4% of the population of the country. There is a tendency of decrease in the number of the population in the district – from 696300 in 2010 to 675 586 people in 2014. (Chart 1)

                                                                                                Chart 1

The long-term tendency of prevailence of the women over men continues and for 2014 there are 1075 women per 1000 men.

The age structure of the population in the district of Plovdiv corresponds to the general specification of the country (Chart 2). The process of demographic aging continues. The following facts are reported for the 5-year period of study:

  • the children and juvenile’s age is relatively steady during the studied period;
  • At the age 18-64 the number of people decreases: from 458 279 in 2010 to 428 981 in 2014 – 29 298 people less (4.33% of the total population).
  • The relative share of people aged 65 and more is increasing from 124 055 in 2010 to 134 737 in 2014 – 10 682 people more (1.5% of the total population). The relative share of the people with capacity to work is decreasing.

                                                                                                Chart 2

The tendency of the birth rate in the district of Plovdiv marks a downward trend: from 10.3% in 2010 to 9.8% in 2014 (Chart 3).

The unfavourable dynamics of the birth and death rates leads to decrease in the natura population growth, which in the analyzed period of time (2010-2014 inclusive) has a negative value. During the last year the population growth rate is (-4.3).

                                                                                                        Chart 3

The newly discovered and registered malignant diseases are presented in Chart 4 and as a basis of comparison, the average values for Bulgaria are also indicated. The morbidity rate in respect to malignant diseases in Plovdiv district outlines a steady upward trend. The frequency of new cases is increasing and in 2014 it is 496.6 per 100 000 people while in 2010 it was 465.7 per 100 000 people. During the entire period (2010-2014 inclusive) the number of newly discovered and registered malignant diseases of the population in the district of Plovdiv is higher than the average for the country.

                                                                                                 Chart 4

   Table 1

Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2010 22,6 35 25 52,8 75,1 99,6 14,9 34 51,8 22,5 5,6 19,9
2011 20,5 33 24,3 47,8 74,8 119,4 19,8 33,7 83,5 23,6 5,3 20,2
2012 19,1 36,3 20,7 51,6 83,8 108,3 17,1 30,7 108,2 20,9 4,4 17,8
2013 23 29 20,5 49,1 82,7 115,3 20,2 33,9 95,3 23,3 7,1 14,4
2014 18,5 34,6 21,9 49,3 89,2 115,3 19,1 27,7 80,6 23,8 6,4 15,5

Legend:

  1. Stomach
  2. Colon
  3. Rectosigmoidal area, rectum, anus
  4. Trachea, bronchi, lungs
  5. Melanoma and other malignant skin diseases
  6. Mammary gland in women
  7. Cervix
  8. Uterus body
  9. Prostate
  10. Bladder
  11. Thyroid gland and other endocrine glands
  12. Lymph, haemopoietic and related tissues

Table 1 presents the frequency of the newly discovered malignant diseases according to their organ location.

The highest frequency in 2014 in Plovdiv district belongs to the newly discovered breast cancer – 115.3 per 100 000 people, followed by the newly discovered prostate cancer – 80.6 per 100 000 men.

The main reason for deaths is in 2014 in Plovdiv district remains the diseases of the blood circulattion organs, whose intensity is 883.6 per 100 000 people, which index is considerably higher than that for the country — 993.4 /0000. The relative share of the diseases of the bodies of blood circulation from all causes of death in Plovdiv district is 62.5%о. The second place is occupied by deaths from malignant new formations with intensity 279.4 per 100 000 people and a relative share of 19.8% compared to 21.5 for the previous year. For the country this index is 250.7 per 100 000 people and the relative share is 16.6%.

Conclusions:

     1.The demographic indices in Plovdiv district within the period 2010-2014 inclusive, show the following:

  • the total number of the population is decreasing;
  • the relative share of the people capable of working is decreasing;
  • the number of people over 65 is increasing
  • negative population growth
  1. The morbidity rate in terms of malignant diseases in the district of Plovdiv outlines a permanent upward tendency.
  1. The highest frequency in 2010-2014 inclusive have newly discovered cases of breast cancer in women, followed by newly discovered diseases of the prostate gland in men.
  2. For the purpose of prevention, early finding and treatment of the disease prophylaxis is necessary, as well as improved diagnostics and more efficient methods of treatment.
  3. The number of people suffering from cervix cancer after application of population screening and vaccine against the human papilloma virus (HPV) is decreasing. As for the mammary gland cancer, death rate is decreasing after the application of population screening and complex treatment, including target therapy. In Bulgaria prophylaxis and early discovery (including screening) of malignant diseases is less frequent.
  4. The good practices of the states with traditions in cancer control show that the limitation of this socially significant disease is only possible with the joint efforts of experts, politicians and the society in general.

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    Dynamics of the newly discovered malignant diseases of the population in the district of Plovdiv
    The malignant diseases are an essential problem of the contemporary society. The present article analyzes the morbidity rate related to neoformations in different organs of the body in people from the district of Plovdiv for a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014 inclusive. The demographic status has been traced. The following facts were established:  the total number of the population is decreasing;  the relative share of the people capable of working is decreasing;  the relative share of elderly people over 65 is increasing. The frequency of newly discovered cases of malignant diseases is increasing, the predominant ones being breast cancer and prostate gland cancer.
    Written by: Shopov Dimitar Georgiev, Mihaylova Vanina Krasteva, Stoeva Teodora Radeva
    Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
    Date Published: 12/28/2016
    Edition: euroasia-science.ru_26-27.02.2016_2(23)
    Available in: Ebook