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REQUIREMENTS OF A NEW PARADIGM OF HIGHER EDUCATION: EXPERIENCE OF KAZAKHSTAN




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In the XXI century humanity has entered the next phase of development — post-industrial civilization, for which information technologies have become a familiar part of our lives. In production process, it can significantly improve the efficiency of labor, increase the volume of output of goods and services, cutting jobs, create absolutely new products not previously conceivable. In this way, new technologies have changed the world and geopolitical conditions. Due to these processes, the evolution of occupations, the birth of new professions requiring new skills and competencies occurs. The requirements for the working man have changed. For modern specialist required cognition and creativity, the ability to respond quickly to market demands, to make effective decisions.

The changes are increasing and accelerating, demanding response system of higher education. The modern market needs an experts, who constantly updating and enriching the knowledge, skills and competencies. At the top companies, in the competitive selection of staff the most important are personal qualities: the harmonious development and leadership, teamwork, commitment to the company’s image. Employers have expressed criticism universities due to low adaptability of graduates to the requirements of reality.

In the Republic of Kazakhstan at the beginning of the 2014/2015 the number of higher education institutions amounted to 126. The number of full-time faculty members is 41 224 people. Out of the total teaching staff 9.3%  — doctor of sciences, 36.8% — candidate of sciences, 6.9% — the title of professor and 18.6% — docent. The number of teachers with academic master’s degree is 7 167 people, PhD — 533 and the doctors by specialty — 387 people.

The following figure shows the level and dynamics of degrees of faculty of higher institutions in the country.

Figure 1. Dynamics of the holders of the degree of Candidate, Doctor of sciences and PhD

Source: List of statistical materials // Committee on Statistics of Kazakhstan [electronic resource]. — Mode of access: stat.gov.kz (Date of access: 04.09.15)

There is a «natural outflow» holders leaving Degrees: Candidates of Sciences and Doctors of Sciences. The first graduates of PhD’s «new model» began in 2011, but the amount is still insignificant and does not allow to do an equivalent rotation. Moreover, the qualification description of young PhD’s is comparatively lower scientific maturity scientists nurtured last scientific school.

Currently, there is no one Kazakh university in the world’s top 200. Meanwhile, the most capable and ambitious bachelors prefer to continue their studies in foreign universities or find ways of employment in developed countries, achieve success and career growth. School students win prizes at international competitions, young scientists awarded world prizes. Individual facts achievements — evidence that there is a high potential for the younger generation and the point of increasing the competitiveness of the nation. The problem of Kazakhstan’s higher education system — lack of qualified teaching staff.

Kazakh universities switched to a three-tier system of education on credit technology. These transformations are certainly allowed to activate students’ academic mobility. But the main achievement of market reforms in higher education, the transition to international standards, unfortunately, was the commercialization. The first results appeared to reduce the basic specialties and disciplines, to reduce the prestige of the profession «teacher» and the potential outflow of young researchers and lecturers from universities, and the main principle of selection of students: if you pay for education, you will not be expelled.

In a result is decreased professional requirements for teachers and qualifications — to the students. Meanwhile, the formal features of education technology improved. The question arises: what is the reason? The answer is obvious: personnel training in the education system for higher education institutions.

Under these circumstances, the only source of rotation of the faculty — graduates of master’s and doctorate in curriculum provides a small number of hours of teaching practice, and the discipline of «Methods of teaching subjects in the specialty» is missing.

In the Soviet system of higher education prestigious specialty «teacher-researcher» has been excluded from the classifier. The preparation of these experts suggest the curriculum equally hours on compulsory disciplines of basic sciences, teaching and research and teaching practice. In this logic and interconnection disciplines allows to produce analytics, competent experts — the teachers with the skills to work with the audience.

The assumption that it is possible for individual students to build a special training of the future trajectory of the teacher, not really. This requires a systematic approach, starting with the provision of public grants it to those students who have a vocation teacher. Form groups in «teacher-researcher» and select from among them, and to teach in a special program and special group masters and doctoral students.

Research universities should primarily be interested in the preparation of such specialists and to provide grants to universities. Switching of higher education system of Kazakhstan to the three-tier model on the Western model has led to a «hybrid of old and new.» Transformation of higher education institutions in research universities occurs when the level of training staff is settle down.

Availability doctorate for young teachers is limited because of the small grants of Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan. Tuition fees in doctorate is prohibited. In 2011, it was decided the MES of RK on awarding doctoral successfully defended his dissertation, degree PhD. Required by the Committee of Science doctoral article, usually written in collaboration, where the main ideas and research is carried out by the research directors, or publishing in foreign journals paid admitting mediocre work.

Perhaps, for the rating of the country in terms of security researchers this innovation is significant, but the owners of the diploma PhD lose motivation for further scientific development: writing monographs, independent publications in prestigious journals, developing training manuals. In Western countries, graduates of doctoral studies as the third stage of higher education, academic degree PhD, and the corresponding academic degree is awarded on the basis of achievements in postdoctoral.

On the lack of scientific maturity doctors evidenced by the fact that during one of the boards of the Ministry of Education and Science in 2014 have been identified, many acute problems doctorate in the country. It was find out that of 914 doctoral students who have completed education in the universities, graduated only 211, and only 189 confirmed diploma. Diploma PhD is «rare good», but his value to the education system is not increased. Young teachers without this doctorate doomed to a lifetime position of «teacher», without academic rank. Accordingly, the increase in wages is not expected. Not motivated teacher, as a rule, is not prone to self-education, is not seeking further training, is not interested in improving the quality of services provided; and looking for the best deals in other areas and countries.

Conclusions: The logical demand of new technological order is a need to change the paradigm of higher education. The traditional approach of providing graduates of the basic knowledge and skills of a profession, is insufficient. Modern technologies require interdisciplinary competences, abilities to foresee the consequences of decisions and actions. To match the professional qualifications of young specialists new market requirements, it is necessary to continuously improve the qualifications of the faculty of the universities and to revive the «teacher-researcher».

References:

  1. Ibragimov G.I. Competence approach in modern education // Educational Technology & Society. — 2007. — № 3. – С.361-365
  2. What Work Requires of Schools. — U.S. Department of Labor. A SCANS Report for America 2000.
  3. List of statistical data // Statistics Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan URL.: stat.gov.kz (09.04.15 г.)
    REQUIREMENTS OF A NEW PARADIGM OF HIGHER EDUCATION: EXPERIENCE OF KAZAKHSTAN
    Written by: Tulegenova Madina Sakenovna, Aytuganova Zauresh Shomshaevna, Khassenova Malike Serikkyzy
    Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
    Date Published: 04/08/2017
    Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_30.04.2015_4(13)
    Available in: Ebook