Public service management is one of the types of special management, which studies particular features, specificity of functions display, as well as specific laws and tendencies that distinguish the management in the public service from the management in other areas.
The priority directions of personnel policy in the public service system should be the following legal and organizational aspects:
- establishment of complex systemfor legal regulation of public service;
- providing conditions for development of competitiveness under equal, regulatory supported opportunities for career growth through contests, certification, qualification exams, etc.;
- application of employees rotation mechanisms, which is an effective tool for prevention of corruption.
Management methods have an objective (means of implementing of the objective laws) and subjective character since they are determined by the knowledge and skills of people.
The methods are divided into a) moral-ideological, socio-political, economic, administrative or b) methods of non-economic impact (organizational, administrative) and economic impact.
The methods are also divided into general, that are used to perform all or only basic control functions (regulation, general management, administrative and economic methods) and special, that are used in the implementation of certain functions (methods of management decision making).
1.The professorship of the state university of management identifies general scientific methods (systematic approach,complex approach,modeling, experimentation, etc.) and concrete or specific methods, meaning approaches, methods, techniques, that help to perform various types of administrative works.
The specific methods, in turn, can be classified as the following: functional subsystems management, management functions implementation, management decision making.
- According to the scientists point of view the methods are divided into administrative (organizational and regulatory), economic, socio- psychological, educational methods.
The administrative methods can be implemented through the direct impact of the subject of management on the object of management. The impact can be carried out on the basis of concluded contracts, through the administrative orders and directives, regulations and rules.
The administrative methods have the following characteristics: the concretely targeted assignment, the lack of full and direct focus on the economic interests of the personnel that considered as the object of management, a high level of responsibility of the superior authorities for the decision making, where decisions do not imply any choice and requires mandatory and exact fulfillment of tasks by personnel.
The economic methods are based on the use of incentives that provide interest and responsibility of subjects of management for the consequences of decisions made and motivate personnel to achieve initiative implementation of the tasks without special orders to do so.
The economic methods are methods of indirect impact on the object of management and having the following characteristics: taking into consideration the economic interests of the team as well as of the individual workers; the independence of the subjects of management at all levels with simultaneous responsibility for the decisions made and the consequences; the motivation for the preparation of alternative solutions and selecting from them the most corresponding to the team and the individual worker’s interests.
Socio-psychological methods of management. A person with his needs, interests, motives, feelings, and ideas is the leading element of any social system.
The process of people management is the main thing in the social systems management. These methods are oriented to the people’s moral interests and linked to the person’s self-assertion and self-expression inside the team as well as his desire to obtain moral satisfaction in his work.
Social methods of management are the concrete ways and techniques of impact on the social processes of the team formation and development.
They include: conviction, social rationing, regulation, moral incentives, wide informing of personnelby the head, as well as the methods of groups management and individual personal behavior control.
The psychological methods of management are the methods and techniques of impact on the regulation of relations between people through creation of the optimal socio-psychological climate that expresses the group consciousness in the form of group mood, opinions and judgments.
The methods of staffing teams and groups, methods of labor humanization, professional selection and training are used as psychological methods.
In practice, the listed above methods should be applied in a single complex.
In the long term conditions the government should focus attention on the most vulnerable parts that will be revealed during the process of solving tasks.
The specificity of public service management is often indicated by the terms «administration» and bureaucracy.
These terms usually indicate the inclination of public service management to the autocratic model of governance in which the key characteristics of management are:
- following the instructions;
- separation between those who issue instructions and those who carry them out;
- concentration of power and political will;
- limitation of freedom;
- authoritarian management style.
The key trend in the current public sector is the acceleration of changes.
The circumstances and aspects of functioning are changing in the public agencies activity: goals and priorities of development, financial environment; ways of public life arrangement; functions of public agencies.
All these changes determine the changes in the basic model of public service
There is a shift from an authoritarian hierarchical model to a new, more flexible model that is based on the management of participation, and modern management technologies, used within commercial companies .
The management in terms of public service is overloaded with numerous laws, regulations and paragraphs, that inhibit improvisation and flexibility, produce uniformity and depersonalization, develop apathy and irresponsibility among employees.
The laws, decrees and regulations are not able to cover all the diversity of life, all variants of possible situations and events.
Even the most perfect duty regulations can record the existing division of labor only in some approximation and cannot fullyconsider the whole range of changes occurring during the work.
As a result, the officially approved duties and rights of employees are largely unbalanced and uncoordinated that leads to the loss of organizing and regulating beginning.
The real activity of the personnel becomes separated from those prescriptions that are recorded in the documents.
The phenomenon of managerial beginning arises at this moment that aimed at providing the strict adherence of subordinates to the established professional standards and ethics.
In the modern country a conscientious leader and his subordinates work under stress and physical overload, being more susceptible to stress. So that, every second head of Human Resources of ministries and departments puts this factor on the first place among the reasons for personnel dismissal from the public service of their own free will.
So the style of personnel management is no less important than the objectively existing administrative and legal structure of the organization, that is, the system of connections and norms which are neutral to the staff and the composition of workers.
The state administration head’s style of management should stimulate the search for the adequate reaction to the current situation and also should stimulate the production of such internal rules (norms) concerning people’s attitude towork that would facilitate vital functions of the state agencies, increase their effectiveness even in the environment of very unstable balance.
Not in a lesser extent the style is determinedby functions and nature of the tasks given to thisparticular team, the level of organization structure optimality, the qualitative parameters of its personnel: professionalism, competence of workers, their education, experience and culture.
This is a special qualitative characteristic that should be inherent not only to the manager but to the public authority which he represents.
Thus, the style is the product of mentoring,professionalism and organizational skills of the manager. Therefore, the manager must have the following qualities:
- decency, honesty, sensitivity, readiness to self-restriction;
- professional competence, working capacity;
- will power, ability to transmit energy and conviction to other people;
- inclination to the organizational work, basic knowledge of management and self-management, knowledge of business ethics features in the public service;
- desire to knowledge, ability of making strategic analysis in the organic combination with an understanding of the complexity and contradictions of the present moment.
The style is affected by the factors such as the level or type of public service: the scope covered by the competence of the public authority, personal qualities of the head, his experience, education, social background and upbringing in the family, his age .
Mastering the modern management style is a necessary task that has arisen in front of our public service administration. To accomplish this task the following is required:
- firstly, understanding of necessity of transitional and new forms and methods of work with the personnel;
- secondly, adoption of the optimal management style in every form of public service, in each level, in each agency and each structural division;
- thirdly, during the work with public service agency’s personnel, it is necessaryto use methods, technologies that encourage personnel’s striving for creative cooperation in making strategic decisions, fostering a sense ofbelonging and responsibility to the affairs of the organization, the broad delegation of authorities;
- fourthly, professional responsibility for the assigned work; it is necessary to master classical and modern theories of motivation of public service’s personnel in order to encourage the subordinates for high performance;
- fifthly, increasing the general level of public service management the main goal of which is to obtain a positive particular result of the activity.
Every manager should clearly understand that mastering the optimal style is one of the leading directions of public service formation .
The competence of the heads, independence and creativityin problem solving is required to form the optimal management style in a modern public service.
In addition, according to many scientists the optimal management style requires stable relationships, reasonable structure of problems to be solved, strength of authorities position, situation in which conflicts occur.
The formation of the optimal work style of public service personnel is connected with overcoming formalism and inability to use effective methods, as well asa real threat of imitation, improvisation of activities.
The main features of the optimal style is the ability to use at work personal, business, professional, moral and volitional qualities of public service personnel, that helps to implement scientifically based, mutually accepted and socially recognized principles of activity.
List of references:
|1. A.Baymenov Public Service of the Republic of Kazakhstan: experience and perspectives»/Speech at the republican seminar, Astana, October 19, 2011
2. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On the Concept of a new model of public service of the Republic of Kazakhstan» July 11, 2011 №119
3. A.Baymenov The public service. International experience.Kazakh model.
–2-nd edition. – Astana: Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2013. -150p.