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A WOMAN IN THE PUBLIC LIFE OF UZBEKISTAN




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The years of independence there were a period of prosperity in the lives of women of Uzbekistan. During this time made important steps in improving their social and political activity, the role and authority within the family, in solving problems of state and social construction. Currently, they are active participants in all spheres of life, support and hope society, a symbol of kindness and mercy. The experience of recent years confirms that the protection of the interests of women, especially in transitional stages of development, cannot be outside the realm of public policy. In the country, step by step, introduce a national programm for the advancement of women in society. Uzbekistan during the years of independence ratified by more than 80 normative legal acts on human rights, much of which is directly related to the problem of protection of the rights and fundamental freedoms of women. Republic is one of the first in Central Asia joined the UN Convention «On the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, Conventions of the International labor organization, «maternity protection Convention», concerning discrimination in respect of employment and occupation». Today these documents are a part of the whole complex of normative legal acts designed to protect the interests of women and to strengthen their credibility in society. The first President of Uzbecistan I.A. Karimov pointed out in his speech that «… improving the status in society, our mothers, sisters, companions and daughters respect and honor to them, to facilitate their labor should be the main task of our state, government, local authorities, General public[1].» At the initiative of the head of state, the legislation of the country has a 30 per cent quota for women from the total number of candidates nominated by each political party to the Oliy Majlis. The role of women in the self-governance bodies (makhallas). In all the communities of the Republic are active women’s councils that are addressing some of the problems women and their families. In mahalls established the post of consultant on religious enlightenment and spiritual-moral education. Without women it is impossible to imagine and the science of Uzbekistan. About ten thousand women scientists develop new methods of diagnosis and treatment, pedagogical approaches to the education of the younger generation. From year to year the number of women scientists working in the field of physics, chemistry and even engineering.

It is impossible not to reckon with the fact that social well-being and spiritual maturity of the people are largely determined by the level of moral health of women: in their hands lies the fate of the younger generation, and, consequently, the future of our state. Along with this, the women selflessly working in various sectors of the economy and participate in all aspects of society. At the time, M. Behbudi wrote in the newspaper «Sadoi Turkestan» (1914. No. 11) says that for girls education is more important than for boys, and he called for funds spent on various decorations and excess, to spend on girls ‘ education, to prepare teachers for schools[2] . The time has come and every woman has their place, their way of life in spheres of public life and in politics growing their numbers.

Women scientists of Uzbekistan cooperate with scientists in countries such as Russia (25,3 %), USA (17.3 per cent), England (16,0 %), Germany (14,0 %), France (6.6 per cent), Japan (6.6 percent), Belgium (6.6 per cent), Spain (5,3 %), Israel (4,0), Turkey (4.0 per cent), Greece (4.0 percent), Switzerland (4.0 percent) and others, as well as neighboring States, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan[3] . Uzbekistan created about 100 women’s organizations including the women’s Committee of Uzbekistan, the Association «Tadbirkor Ayol», Association of women scientists, (olima,) Association «Woman and ecology», Women’s resource center, Association «the Leader of Women (Ayollar uyushmasi»,) international Association «Char Hayeli» and others.

There is a stage of integration of women in the modern socio-economic and socio-political life of the state. The study showed that over 62% of women of working age are active in various sectors of the economy, in the sphere of culture, education and management. About 70% of teachers are women. Among the professional colleges and academic lyceums, the proportion of women is 50%, and in higher education – 43% of the teaching staff. In the health sector — 78% of medical staff, including about 53% of doctors were women. Over 1,100 women doctors have a degree – 37% of the total number of doctors of the highest caliber[4] .

For more than two decades a key priority implemented in Uzbekistan socio-economic and democratic reforms is creating opportunities for realizing the potential of women in all aspects of their lives, the discrimination against them. In recent years, constantly increasing the proportion of women in these modern, fast-growing industries like automotive, life Sciences, pharmaceuticals, electronic and electrical industry, information and communication technology, high-tech industry, service sector and market services.

Gender equality, enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan[5], subsequent documents and state programs aimed at enhancing and promoting the interests of women is the basis of their legal protection, a necessary condition for civil and labor activity, professional and career growth, integration in the current socio-economic and socio-political life of the state. Gender equality is also enshrined in the Civil, Labor, Family, Criminal and other codes. Women are represented in all departments of internal Affairs, including in such key services as the criminal police, investigation and inquiry, public safety. They investigate complex criminal cases, solve crimes, conduct forensic research, making a significant contribution to the prevention of road accidents, ensure protection of public order, and perform many other functions. Sometimes they, along with men, in any weather — and cold and heat are in office. And at the same time, they are a great hostess, caring mother, tender and gentle wife. A great achievement is the development of legislative acts of the Republic of Uzbekistan to ensure the rights and freedoms of women, which contributed to the strengthening of the role of women in the family, state and public construction, in the system of real protection of their legal, social, economic and spiritual interests.

The formation in Uzbekistan of a legal state with a strong civil society is a critical factor in the growth of social and political activity of women. It is important; to stress that significantly increased opportunities for the participation of women in making important decisions for the state. High 30% quota for women candidates in Parliament from political parties opens up more opportunities for women to contribute to the legislative process[6].

Uzbekistan has established a specific legal mechanism to ensure the equality of men and women. The Constitution in article 46 enshrines the equal rights of men and women and established a system of safeguards that ensure such equality. These include: providing women with equal opportunities of social, political and cultural activity, in obtaining education and professional training, in work and remuneration for it, special measures for occupational safety and health of women, establishment of pension privileges, creation of conditions that enable women to combine work with motherhood, legal protection, material and moral support of motherhood and childhood, including paid leave and other benefits for pregnant women and mothers.

As one of the ancient philosopher mentioned that «the treatment of women – the finest measure of honor, conscience, decency, nobility and high school education sensitivity». A woman is a special socio — demographic group. Their ability is to live in different specific social functions, including all areas of relations in society. They are characterized by specific traits, the particular spiritual form, and perform the role of women and mothers. Currently, the activities of women are growing number of in governance, in the political sphere. The woman began to act more as a subject than as an object in society. The role of women – mothers, wives, sisters, is particularly significant, when she raises the children, the warmth warms the hearts of those who are near.

It is difficult to overestimate the role of mothers in society, because it educates people of tomorrow. But the woman ordained and the other: modern women full participate in all areas of life, female politicians, female public figures make a significant contribution to building civil society in Uzbekistan[7]. In your main day-to-day work, women does work, the essence of which is eternal – save bestowed by God on human life, save human soul in the difficulties of life on earth. Modern women are able to reach the top in the profession, in art, in social activities, to create a welcoming and comfortable atmosphere in the family, to raise children. They have inconceivable secret all the time, to cope with the huge burden of care and remain tender, bright, charming. They bring in this world of good and a beauty, light and hope.

 

Literature

  1. Ismailov N.U. Women’s issue in Uzbekistan and the present // The young scientist. — 2014. — №1. — S. 226-228
  2. Festive Greetings Women’s day March-8, the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan / 2015 /, «the National word» March 5
  3. Behbudi «Sadoi Turkistan» (1914, № 11)
  4. A. Ubaydullaeva, N.H. Rakhimov article «Conditions and factors of improving the social status of Uzbekistan» The article was written based on the results of sociological study «Women in Uzbekistan — 2013: social status and social well-being»
  5. Ismailov N.U. Women’s issue in Uzbekistan and the present // The young scientist. — 2014. — №1. — S. 226-228.
  6. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Section 2, Part 5, Article
  7. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan T.2014. part 2, Article 117

Constitutional Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Article 1 «On the next elections to the representative bodies of the government and the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan»

[1] Festive Greetings Women’s day March-8, the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan / 2015 /, «the National word» March 5

[2] M. Behbudi «Sadoi Turkistan» (1914, № 11)

[3] R.A. Ubaydullaeva, N.H. Rakhimov article «Conditions and factors of improving the social status of Uzbekistan» The article was written based on the results of sociological study «Women in Uzbekistan — 2013: social status and social well-being»

[4] Ismailov N.U. Women’s issue in Uzbekistan and the present // The young scientist. — 2014. — №1. — S. 226-228.

[5] The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Section 2, Part 5, Article

[6] The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan  T.2014. part 2, Article 117

Constitutional Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Article 1 «On the next elections to the representative bodies of the government and the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan»

[7] Ismailov N.U. Women’s issue in Uzbekistan and the present // The young scientist. — 2014. — №1. — S. 226-228.

A WOMAN IN THE PUBLIC LIFE OF UZBEKISTAN
The article shows the role and status of women in society in Uzbekistan, ensuring their rights and interests. Today is step integration of women in the contemporary socio-economic and socio-political life of the state. The study showed that more than 62% of women of working age are active in various sectors of economy, culture, education and management. About 70% of teachers are women. Among the experts of professional colleges and academic lyceums proportion of women is 50%, and in higher education - 43% of the teaching staff. In the health sector - 78% of medical staff, including about 53% of physicians are women. More than 1100 doctors women have a degree - 37% of the total number of highly qualified doctors . Analyzed such personal qualities as an industrious, wisdom, patience, and also studied the leading role of mother, wife, and sister. Conclusions are made regarding women scientists and involvement of women in socio-political life of Uzbekistan.
Written by: Gaffarova Mavlyuda Kurbanbaeva
Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
Date Published: 01/12/2017
Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_30.12.16_33(1)
Available in: Ebook