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ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOKS IN TEACHING OF BIOLOGY




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Introduction

The strategic tasks facing today the Kazakhstan education are reflected in a number of the state programs and concepts directed to formation of the uniform educational information environment: further computerization of the organizations of secondary education for achievement of world indicators of security with the computer equipment, connection to the Internet of the organizations of secondary education, development and deployment of technologies for distance learning on all education levels, creation of the educational information resource centers in regions and the educational portal of the ministry, providing the organizations of secondary education with electronic educational editions according to educational programs, introduction of an information system of monitoring, the analysis and management of education of the organizations, — all these actions are the main directions of realization of the block of informatization and are intended to accelerate transition of the Kazakhstan education system to qualitatively new substantial and technological level. [1]

Information technologies are quickly updated: appear new, more effective and difficult, based on developments in the field of artificial intelligence, virtual reality. The modern teacher is faced with a wide choice of the electronic training programs. Today there is an active process of creation of electronic textbooks in a hypertext form and their active distribution, and attempts of introduction to the educational process. Methodical provisions of the design of electronic textbooks are defined in the principles of development of new information technologies and pedagogical technologies of designing of electronic courses and some other works on methodology and technology of creation of an electronic methodical system in the conditions of education informatization.

Since the second half of the XX century application of the latest means of information technology in various spheres of human activity including in education acquires the increasing relevance. [2] Tens of thousands of schools abroad and hundreds of schools in our country in recent years began to use possibilities of modern computers and telecommunications directly in the study when training biology.

 Now there are many educational computer programs that, in principle should exempt the teacher from the need of creation of an electronic course of discipline by own forces and increase the quality of training [6].

However ready computer programs can be used only for certain aspects of the taught material. Separate programs are necessary for various sections of a course that breaks its integrity. For the solution of this problem more and more urgent is a development of own electronic information resources. Such educational resource is the electronic textbook which contents should answer the purpose and problems of discipline, level of the audience, technical equipment of educational institution.

Use of electronic textbooks in educational process allows the student to obtain expanded information on the studied subject, increases its educational potential, provides a possibility of receiving continuous education, allows to increase quality of educational process, labor productivity of the teacher, to develop information culture of students, to increase the level of creativity of their thinking.

The problem of pedagogical training of future teachers, updating of contents and technology of training constantly is an object of an active research and theoretical judgment.

Improvement of textbooks and manuals defines a problem of improvement of the quality of training of teachers. The textbook is the central component of the system of tutorials. The textbook, regardless of a type of the data carrier paper or electronic, realizes the following functions:

  1. is a source of the educational information disclosing in an available from the content of the studied discipline according to educational standards;
  2. serves as the tutorial organizing educational process [2].

The modern development of the theory of the textbook dictated by objective conditions of information and the technical ensuring educational process is presented by the emergence of the electronic textbook.

 Despite the available domestic and foreign experience of use of electronic textbooks, the standard definition of the concept «electronic (computer, multimedia) textbook» does not exist yet though the state standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan according to electronic editions and the instruction which is the main document containing definitions of concepts and the rule of technical, educational methodical, ergonomic and substantial expertise of educational electronic editions is already entered.

Such situation is natural to the new direction of scientific research, and many definitions confirms relevance and novelty of a research of the matter.

The electronic textbook — the main educational electronic edition on educational discipline created at high scientific and methodical and technological level, which is completely conforming to requirements and the main didactic units of the state educational standard of specialty with high dynamics of illustrative material [3]. Along with the main material, it contains the means of interactive access, means of animation and animation, and the video image in dynamics showing the principles and ways of realization of separate processes and the phenomena. It is used on personal computers or in local computer networks and extends to CD-ROM; an axiomatic part which should have the opened links to external sources of information, databases, placed on one of the servers of a global computer network.

It is necessary                   it is accurate to define distinctive signs of the electronic textbook from printing. In our opinion they are as follows:

  • Electronic textbooks are an addition, but not an alternative to traditional forms of education, and does not replace work of the pupil with books, abstracts, collections of tasks and
  • Each printing textbook (on paper) is calculated on a certain initial level of training of pupils and assumes the final level of training. In many general education objects, there are textbooks usual (basic), the increased complexity, facultative, etc. The electronic textbook on a concrete subject may contain material of several levels of complexity. At the same time, all of them will be placed on one laser compact disk, to contain illustrations and animation to the text, multiple tasks for an examination in the interactive mode for each
  • Presentation in the electronic textbook is much higher than in printing. The presentation is provided with use during the creation of electronic textbooks of multimedia technologies: animation, soundtrack, hyperlinks, video topics, etc.
  • The electronic textbook provides many alternativeness, the level and a variety of test tasks, tests are a lot of. The electronic textbook allows all tasks and tests to give in the interactive and training mode. At the incorrect answer, it is possible to give the right answer with explanations and comments.
  • The electronic textbook is mobile: during its creation and distribution stages of typographical work drop out. Electronic textbooks are open systems on the structure. They can be supplemented, corrected, modified in use.
  • Availability of ET is higher than at printing textbooks. At demand for ET, it is easily possible to increase its circulation, it is possible to send on network [7]

But for the creation of the electronic textbook, it is not enough to take the good textbook, to supply it with navigation (to create hypertexts) and rich illustrative material (including multimedia means) and to embody on the computer screen.

ET should facilitate as much as possible understanding and storing (and active, but not passive) the most essential concepts, statements, and examples, involving others in training process, then the usual textbook, possibilities of a human brain acoustical and emotional memory, and using computer explanations [4].

During the creation of electronic textbooks, it is necessary to adhere to the following stages:

  1. Developments of the electronic textbook it is expedient to pick up as sources such printing and electronic editions which: most fully correspond to the standard program; are laconic and convenient for creation of hypertexts; contain many examples and tasks; are available in convenient formats (the principle of a collecting).
  2. The conclusions of contracts from the received set of sources are selected those which have an optimum ratio of the price and quality.

III. The table of contents is developed, i.e. splitting material into the sections consisting of the modules, minimum on volume but closed per contents is made and the list of concepts which are necessary and sufficient for mastering a subject (two – or a three-level index) is formed.

  1. Texts of sources per a table of contents, an index and structure of modules are processed; the texts which did not enter lists are excluded and those which are not in sources are written; the system of context helps (Help) is developed; communications between modules and other hypertext communications are defined.

Thus, are prepared the draft of the hypertext for computer realization.

  1. The hypertext is implemented in an electronic form. The primitive electronic edition which can be already used in the educational purposes is thus created. Many also call such primitive EI the electronic textbook. It has practically no chances of commercial success because students will not buy it.
  2. Computer support is developed: is defined what mathematical operations in each case are charged to the computer and in what form the answer of the computer should be submitted; the biology is projected and implemented; methodical recommendations for users about the application of an intellectual kernel of the electronic textbook are developed.

The working electronic textbook which has the properties doing it necessarily for students, useful to classroom occupations and convenient for teachers is thus created. Such electronic textbook can extend on a commercial basis and is ready to further improvement (scoring and visualization) by means of multimedia means.

VII. Ways of an explanation of separate concepts and statements change and texts for replacement with multimedia materials are selected.

VIII. Texts are developed of a soundtrack of separate modules for unloading of the screen from text information and use of the acoustical memory of the pupil for simplification of understanding and storing of the studied material.

  1. The developed texts of a soundtrack register in a dictaphone and are implemented on the computer.
  2. Scenarios are developed for visualization of modules for the achievement of the greatest presentation, the maximum unloading of the screen from text information and use of the emotional memory of the pupil for simplification of understanding and storing of the studied material.
  3. Visualization of texts is made, i.e. the computer embodiment of the developed scenarios with the use of drawings, schedules and, perhaps, animation (it must be kept in mind that animation costs very much) [5].

On it, the development of the electronic textbook comes to an end and its preparation for operation begins.

Conclusions

Analyzing all aforesaid, it is possible to note that, the average of education demands to update its information and methodical providing which important part are textbooks, printing or electronic. The school textbook should meet the following requirements: provide the general orientation of training and formation of scientific outlook; report new reliable data according to the modern level of development of this area of scientific knowledge in the limits designated by the program; develop thinking of students, from the main methods of celebration; provide preparation for independent acquisition of knowledge; correspond to age features of students both according to contents, and on the used language means, methods of emotional influence; have accurate structural division and highlighting of conclusions, the major provisions, key concepts and so forth; contain enough the illustrations facilitating perception, understanding and storing of a training material, which is conveniently located and coordinated to the text; contain the necessary number of repetitions, references to earlier studied material on this subject (intra-subject communications) or of other disciplines (intersubjective communications); include the tasks stimulating development of independence, creative approach to search of means and methods of the solution of the put problems, formation of abilities freely to use a stock of the available knowledge, skills for the solution of non-standard tasks; have the thought-over methodical registration (lubricating, a table of contents, a subject name index, footnotes and references).

Results of work allow to draw the following conclusions: the idea of training with application of the electronic textbook was approved thanks to the objective process of informatization of education caused by rapid growth of functionality and technical characteristics of computer networks and technologies; modeling of the electronic textbook assumes detection of features of a subject and search for the optimum structure of construction adequate to forms of the organization of training; the electronic textbook is the electronic form uniting the tutorial (textbook) created on the basis of the software with use of interactive methods of training on a basis of individual and group forms of education with orientation to the current and total control; mark out several principles of creation of ET.

It is obvious that with introduction innovative technologies in training for school creation of electronic tutorials becomes the major activity and as any innovation, electronic textbooks have the merits and demerits. Advantages of these textbooks, in our opinion, are: first, their mobility can be realized search in the text, click-throughs, secondly, availability of connection with the development of computer networks, thirdly, adequacy to the level of development of modern scientific knowledge. On the other hand, the creation of electronic textbooks promotes also the decision and such problem as continuous updating of information material. They can also contain many exercises and examples, to be illustrated in detail in dynamics different types of information. Besides, by means of electronic textbooks control of knowledge — computer testing is exercised. It is much simpler to transport the e-book, at the expense of the smaller weight and volume, in comparison with printing books.

It is possible to refer not good physiology of the display to shortcomings of EU as means of perception of information (perception from the screen of text information is much less convenient and it is effective than reading the book). Contrast and image sharpness are still lower than at usual paper, electronic textbooks are more sensitive to physical impact (fragile) than printing books have a cost also for today.

The key role in the creation of electronic textbooks, of course, belongs to authors of courses, they bear all responsibility for their quality. Preparation and development of qualitative training, educational and methodical, additional and directory materials in many respects are defined by pedagogical knowledge of the developer, as far as they own a training technique, skills of system approach to the design of didactic materials for electronic textbooks, the ability to use some means of information technologies, etc. In a word, the task facing all authors software developer’s creation of electronic textbooks, on the one hand, rather difficult, diverse, extensive and labor-consuming, but on the other hand, urgent, creative and interesting.

Literature:

  1. The state program of development of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2010.
  2. Bespalko V.P. Theory of the textbook. — M.: Pedagogics, 1988, — 160
  3. Ageev V. N. Electronic editions of educational appointment: concepts, creation, use / V. N. Ageev, Yu. G. Drev. — M.: 2003,-236
  4. GOST PK 34.017-2005. State standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan Information technology. Electronic
  5. Zaynutdinova L. H. Creation and application of electronic textbooks (on the example of all technical disciplines). — Astrakhan: TsNEP publishing house. 1999, — 364
  6. Wulf, W. A. 2003. «Higher Education Alert: The Information Railroad is Coming.» Educause, /Feb.
  7. Vymyatnin V. M., DemkinP., Mozhaeva G. V., Rudenko T. V. Multimedia courses: methodology and technology of development, Tomsk 2003//http://ido.tsu.ru/ss/?unit=223.
    ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOKS IN TEACHING OF BIOLOGY
    The article is devoted to questions of informatization of teaching and educational process of school by means of the use of electronic textbooks. The electronic textbook, being the modern tutorial, significantly in-creases quality and learning efficiency, the motivation of pupils and optimizes the activity of the teacher. The teacher discloses advantages of the use of electronic textbooks it is aware of biology.
    Written by: Sultan Orynbassar Abdusamatovich, Yusupov Bakhadir Yuldashovich
    Published by: БАСАРАНОВИЧ ЕКАТЕРИНА
    Date Published: 04/12/2017
    Edition: ЕВРАЗИЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ УЧЕНЫХ_30.03.2017_03(36)_часть 1
    Available in: Ebook